Kannada, Kannadiga, Kannadigaru, Karnataka,

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NARASARAJA, WRESTLER KING OF MYSORE

NARASARAJA, WRESTLER KING OF MYSORE

By Prof. A.V. Narasimha Murthy

Wrestling, a martial sport of India has a hoary antiquity going back to almost the beginning of our history. Our epics Mahabharata, Ramayana and Puranas portray wrestling in all its glory. Bhima is considered to be the greatest wrestler of Indian tradition. His fight against Jarasandha has been graphically described in Mahabharata. Hanuman was not only a great wrestler but was also elevated to the level of the God of Wrestling and all the wrestling institutions (garadi) have an idol or a portrait of Hanuman to whom worship is offered.

Many kings of Karnataka were proficient in wrestling and many of them had assumed the titles ‘malla’ connected with wrestling. Hundreds of hero-stones have been found in Karnataka which depict the sculptures of wrestlers in action. Perhaps the Vijayanagara kings made it a great sport by including it in Dasara festival daily.

Great patrons

The graphic description of wrestling competitions of the Vijayanagara period make an interesting reading. The Mysore Wadiyars being the cultural successors of Vijayanagara rulers were also the great patrons of this art. Even now wrestling competitions are held in Mysore city at Doddakere (Sahukar Channaiah Akhada).

Many ancient kings have claimed themselves to be great wrestlers but we do not know their real exploits. Perhaps most of them had ornamental titles. But there was an exception to this in the Wadiyar dynasty and that was Ranadhira Kanthirava Narasaraja Wadiyar I (1638-59). He was not a weak king as his predecessor Raja Wadiyar II. As soon as he came to the throne he eliminated Dalavoy Vikramaraya and assumed full powers.

It is said that at the temple town of Trichy an arrogant wrestler had hung his underwear (Chaddi) at the entrance of the fort and everybody had to walk under this underwear in great humiliation. Even the Madurai Nayaka was helpless in this matter. Some people who went from Mysore on a pilgrimage to Trichy found this as highly insulting and construed this as an affront to the Kannadigas by a Tamil wrestler and informed this to King Narasaraja.

He went to Trichy incognito and tore off the underwear. This created a great furore and the Trichy wrestler fought against Narasaraja but was defeated and killed in the wrestling. People of Trichy including the king heaved a sigh of relief. But before they could honour him, King Narasaraja returned to Mysore. This made him a Jagajatti (world class wrestler).

Three wrestlers together

Three jealous wrestlers of Tamil Nadu came to Srirangapatna and threw a challenge to Narasaraja; “If you are a great wrestler, you have to fight against all the three of us together”. Narasaraja accepted the offer and to the pleasant surprise of everyone, Narasaraja crushed the two wrestlers by his two arms and the third fellow between his thighs. This incident confirmed that he was a great wrestler.

Some mischievous people out of jealousy wanted to insult Narasaraja. A male wrestler was dressed up like a woman wrestler and she challenged Nara-saraja. The king’s spies brought the news that it was not a woman but a man in the guise of a wo-man. Narasaraja accepted the challenge to the dismay of the spectators. He did not fight but simply removed her (his) dress and lo ! There stood a man with just a loin-cloth. People cheered the King Narasaraja for this clever feat.

We should not be under the impression that the King was whiling away his time in wrestling. He defeated many kings including the Mughals, Bijapur Sultan, Marathas, Madurai Nayakas and many Palegars and extended the Mysore kingdom upto Tamil Nadu.

Tirumala revolted against Narasaraja and the Mysore King had a novel idea of punishing the enemy. He ordered that nose of the enemy soldiers be chopped off as a punishment. This was resorted to faithfully and this war became famous as a war of noses.

Navakoti Narayana

He took special steps to augment the resources of his kingdom and gold coins flowed in huge quantities. These coins amounted to nine crores (navakoti) and he assumed the title ‘Navakoti Narayana’. He declared independence from the Vijayanagar rulers and to commemorate this great event, he opened a mint. For the first time coins of Mysore Wadiyars came to be minted. These gold coins of Narasaraja were called Kanthiraya hanas. They contained on one side various gods and goddesses and his name Kantirava in Kannada on the other side. He also strengthened the Fort of Srirangapatna and built a temple of Narasimha there.

He got a stone sculpture of himself prepared and placed it in this temple as a mark of devotion to the deity. It is said that his father had a mistress by name Bangarudoddi, and Narasaraja built a canal near Srirangapatna and named it Bagarudoddi nala. He was also a patron of literature, and the work ‘Narasaraja Vijaya’ written by Govinda Vaidya is an important work of this period. Though Kantirava Narasaraja Wadiyar had ten wives, he had only one son who predeceased his father. Some scholars feel that he had no sons at all.

Thus Ranadhira Kantirava Narasaraja Wadiyar was a powerful, popular and colourful Maharaja of Mysore Wadiyar dynasty. A large number of folk songs and stories have been woven around him and thus he had become a legend by his wrestling prowess. Such kings are really rare.

http://www.starofmysore.com/main.asp?type=specialnews&item=2987

February 23, 2008 Posted by | History of Karnataka | 6 Comments

Nagayi Ghatika, which was once a much sought after centre for higher education, is in a state of neglect today.

 Past perfect

Nagayi Ghatika, which was once a much sought after centre for higher education, is in a state of neglect today. Srinivas Sirnoorkar reports.
 
Standing in open land, braving the onslaught of nature for over a thousand years, the beautiful temple structure situated in a remote corner of the State is not just any monument. It is different. It perpetuates the memory of the past glory of the ancient system of higher education.

Although it is not counted among Nalanda, Takshashila and Varanasi, Nagayi Ghatikasthana, located in the sleepy village of Nagayi in Chittapur taluk of Gulbarga district, is known as a consequential centre of excellence. It was, in fact, one of the most celebrated and sought-after centres of higher learning in South India, for it offered quality vedic and sastric education.

Unfortunately, this place does not even attract visitors today. Nor has any effort been made to bring it to the limelight. However, this ancient monument which is still intact due to least or no human intervention at all is serving an altogether different purpose today. Wonderful, tiny sparrows which are on the verge of extinction have taken a very safe shelter in it.

Situated 3 km south-east of Chittapur, Nagayi Ghatikasthana was a residential university and scaled new peaks during the period of Kalyani Chalukyas, especially during the regime of Vikramaditya VI. Due to his liberal patronage, Ghatikasthana was able to carve a niche for itself as an excellent centre of higher learning in the State.

Interestingly, it was here that a well equipped library was developed and managed by a professional. It had hundreds of vedic and sastric manuscripts.

Nagayi, which had been an agrahara during the period of Satavahanas in the 2nd and 3rd centuries AD, gradually grew into an educational centre during the Chalukyas. Five inscriptions have been found here, all belonging to the period of Kalyani Chalukyas. The oldest among the inscriptions is the one on a pillar, erected in the compound of the `aravattu kambada gudi’ (temple of 60 pillars). According to this inscription, Dandanayaka Madhuvapparasa constructed it in 1058 AD as `tripurusha sale’.

Another inscription dating back to 1086 AD also furnishes a lot of information relating to grades of education.
At Nagayi Ghatika, all the important branches of ancient Indian higher education, including the vedas, vyakarana, vedanga, sastra, purana, poetry, drama, music, fine art, etc., were taught.

A number of scholars, members of royal families, diplomats, and students from other prestigious sections of society would come here to pursue their higher education. It had an intake of 250 students – 200 for the vedic branch and 50 for the sastric branch. Students and teachers used to live together in this residential centre of higher learning with free boarding and lodging facilities. There were different grades of scholars such as Ekadandi, Tridandi, Snataka, Brahmachari, Hamsa, Paramahamsa and Anushthani. The members of all these grades had the privilege of residing in designated quarters.

There was also a separate math to render Rigveda, Yajurveda, Samaveda, Atharvanaveda and Vedanga.
The Ghatika had a systematic staff pattern. There were six teachers for 250 students. While three teachers taught Bhattadarshan, Nyasa and Prabhakar Commentary, the other three taught the vedas. It had one Saraswati Bhandari (librarian).

A notable feature of the topography is that the Ghatika has been constructed in a place rich in water resources. Ram Teertha, the pond of perennial streams, never goes dry.

The east facing temple consists of a garbhagriha, an open antarala and a spacious sabha mantap. In the garbhagriha is a single peetha that previously held the images of Brahma, Vishnu and Maheshwara. Sadly, the images are missing now.

Though Gulbarga had more than 30 agraharas, the Nagayi agrahara was the most important one and the earliest known agrahara of Karnataka.

Nagayi Ghatikasthana has immense scope for tourism development, if only the authorities concerned take necessary steps in this regard.

http://www.deccanherald.com/Content/Oct302007/spectrum2007102933029.asp

October 31, 2007 Posted by | History of Karnataka | Leave a comment

Abode of art and beauty:Devanahalli is replete with strikingly beautiful monuments

DISCOVER TRADITIONS, DISCOVER TEMPLES
Abode of art and beauty
 
Devanahalli is replete with strikingly beautiful monuments that dates back to several centuries. Srinidhi Raghavendra L V explores a Hoysala styled temple here.
 

Less than a decade ago, Devanahalli was a small non-descript town on the outskirts of Bangalore with its share of infrastructure and other problems. But since it has been chosen as the site for the Bangalore International Airport, the town has witnessed hectic development activity both in terms of private enterprise and government initiative. Now after nearly several years of dilly-dallying, government has started work on the Airport and the frenzy of developmental activity in and around the town, is only slated to increase.

Apart from the international airport imbroglio, few are aware of the historical significance of Devanahalli. The small town is replete with interesting and strikingly beautiful monuments that date to several hundred years. If these attractions are well restored, developed and publicised, there is no doubt about Devanahalli transforming into a tourist and heritage destination.

The town is endowed with quite a few ancient monuments including houses where former Mysore rulers Haider Ali and Tipu Sultan lived, the residence of Dewan Purnaiah, the Fort, strikingly beautiful temples dedicated to Venugopalaswamy, Nanjundeshwara, Chandramouleshwara, Kalamma, Veerabhadraswamy, Ranganathaswamy, etc.

Venugopalaswamy temple

The temple located inside the fort close to the entrance can be easily compared to the majestic temples at Belur and Halebid. This small shrine is endowed with beautiful Hoysala style pillars and frescoes that are very similar to the ones found in Belur and Halebid. It can be easily said that this temple is a miniature version of the mega temple complexes that are located in these famous locales. One has to travel four to five hours to reach Belur, but Devanahalli is a mere one-hour drive from Bangalore.

The Venugopalaswamy temple is a medium-sized temple with a tall Rayagopura at the entrance. The temple has a spacious inner Prakara (courtyard) and is complete with a navaranga, mukhamantapa and a small garbhagriha. At the entrance of the temple, there are two Vishnu statues ascribed to the Ganga era, which are believed to have been brought from the village of Gangavara. These impressive similar images are not the mirror images, they are distinctly different from each other, while one has a Prayogachakra (Disc), Shankha (Conch), Abhaya (blessing) and Gada (Mace) in its four hands, the other has different weapons and exhibits a separate demeanour.

As one enters the courtyard leading into the mukhamantapa (verandah), niches adorned with several stucco (a mixture of jaggery, limestone and sand used in construction) images attract attention. The four pillars supporting the mukhamantapa are classy and intricately carved. The entire outer wall of the temple is made of stone and has a frieze containing large images illustrating different incidents of epic Ramayana. The Balakanda chapter of the epic is finely illustrated in the form of detailed sculpts on the northern and southern walls.

The other sections of the frieze have images of Sage Rishyashringa and Dasharatha performing a sacrifice, Vishwamitra teaching Rama archery and a section of the wall also illustrates the pranks played by Lord Krishna when he was a child. These sculptures provide beautiful relief to our city-sore eyes used to viewing only brick and mortar buildings.

The Garbhagriha (sanctum sanctorum) has a standing image of lord Venugopalaswamy sculpted in the Vijayanagar style with a Dravidian style shikhara covering it. The navaranga (inner courtyard) of the temple has four black stone pillars with attractive relief sculptures on all sides – the images include the Hayagriva, dancing girls, musicians playing on traditional instruments, a conch blower etc.

One of the notable sculptures is the image of a Kinnara where the lower portion of his body is a bird and the upper section is that of a female hunter removing thorns from her feet.

According to the temple priest, a special Utsav or festival is celebrated on the Chaitra Purnima day (April) every year, prior to which, the entire temple including the stone pillars and sculptures are carefully washed with water and detergent to remove accumulated dust and then varnished in order to protect them. These efforts are mainly funded by devotees and the townsfolk who flock to the shrine during these days. But as expenses rise and numbers of visitors dwindle, the priest laments, it may not be possible to continue with the elaborate cleaning and maintenance each year.

Despite this regular maintenance and upkeep, a few sculpted friezes on the eastern wall have developed cracks and it is left to one’s imagination as to what would happen if the temple were to be allowed to deteriorate due to lack of funds. The government should take the onus now, when crores are being spent on the International Airport project to allocate a small amount of money to restore and maintain these important heritage hotspots, which possess a great potential for tourism.

How to get there

Travel on Bellary Road (NH-7) and move towards Mekhri circle, 9 kms from Bangalore is Yelahanka satellite town. Proceed straight ahead for another 29 kms to reach the outskirts of Devanahalli town. Turn left at the entrance of the town and half-a-km from here is Tipu’s birth place and fort. As you enter, on the right side, the fort and temple are the first large structures which are visible.

http://www.deccanherald.com/Archives/may312005/spectrum844492005530.asp

October 25, 2007 Posted by | History of Karnataka | 3 Comments

EKAVI KARNATAKA PHOTOS

EKAVI KARNATAKA PHOTOS

http://picasaweb.google.com/vmkumaraswamy/EkaviKarnataka?authkey=SS1LValXF4A

September 3, 2007 Posted by | EKAVI COORG-KODAGU, History of Karnataka | 3 Comments

Mallinathapura’s Thatte Habba

Mallinathapura’s Thatte Habba

Swing in action
 
 
 
Mallinathapuras Thatte Habba, in which all the three major communities of the village participate, is a unique festival spanning several months. R S Ranjeetha Urs gives a first hand account of this distinct celebration.
 

“My soul lies with the Gods here, only my physical being is in my hamlet. My Gods, Lord Basaveshvara and Shilanthavva, will uplift us all. They are great levellers,” says Thyagamani of S Doddapura, a small hamlet adjacent to Mallinathapura village of Malavalli taluk in Mandya district.


Thyagamani’s piety is understandable as she is speaking just after the end of Mallinathapura’ s Thatte Habba, the village festival, celebrated once in two years to worship Lord Basaveshvara and Shilanthavva. Ten families of S Doddapura, including that of Thyagamani’s, are vokkalus (devotees) of Mallinathapura’ s Basaveshvara and Shilanthavva.


What sets apart Thatte Habba, also known as Dodda Habba, from the region’s scores of other festivals is the swing, its greatest attraction.


Thattes are actually nearly 50-feet high arecanut palms erected at the four corners of a square-like space at the village entrance. A rope made of buffalo skin, known as mili, is suspended in the middle of the enclosure and to this is notched up a wooden plank seven feet above the ground.


In order to swing, one has to first squat on the wooden plank and then somebody has to give the plank a shove. The individual on the plank stands up as the swing reaches one end of the space, then squats as it reaches the centre, only to rise again as it reaches the other end, lending momentum. A truly exhilarating experience!


The four thattes are more than mere totems of the kinship binding Mallinathapura’ s three major castes: the Urs community, Kurubas and Dalits. The first two are provided by Dodattis and Chikkattis, the Urs sub-groups, the third by Kurubas and the fourth by Dalits.


Kenchegowda, a Kuruba, explained that like every year, this year too all the Kurubas had pooled in their resources to get the arecanut palm. Though residents of neighbouring Kanikalli hamlet, the deities of the Kurubas — Kalyana Basaveshvara, Shilanthavva and Mugamashnamma — are in Mallinathapura.


Thatte Habba’s division of labour is emphatic. As Kenchegowda said, his people play the thamate and dance to its rhythm. “Our job cannot be done by them and we can’t perform their roles,” he observed. Even if one community refuses to participate, the habba won’t take off, he added.


For Mahadevaiah, a Dalit, the festival is an occasion to commune with his kith and kin and offer his prayers to gramadevathe for a bountiful harvest.


There were signs of trouble at this year’s festival. For the first time ever, police were present to ward off any untoward incident.


The new development could either be for good or worse. But it was an indication that the festival is no more the same, Puttaraje Urs, a resident of the village, said.


Once, owing to some misunderstanding between the communities, the festival was not observed for eight years, said M K Kantharaje Urs, another resident of the village.


Thatte Habba begins in the aftermath of Deepavali, when scores from Mallinathapura and its hamlets go on a pilgrimage to Male Mahadeshvara Hills.


After the pilgrimage, nine Dalits and one Kuruba representative approach Urs community leaders to put forward the festival proposal. A formal “yes” sets off Thatte Habba, spanning several months, explained Nanjaraje Urs, a localite.
On an auspicious Tuesday, a Dalit beats the drum to herald the festival. A week later, every village household contributes logs of wood that are chopped the same night. The cut wood is piled up in the shape of a top in front of Shilanthavva temple, at the village entrance.


The temple priest then offers prayers, circumambulates the wood formation and lights it on the north-eastern side, the direction believed to be inhabited by Basaveshvara and his two sisters, Mugamashnamma and Honnahuthamma.
Three days after the wood formation is reduced to ashes, which is called karkulu, the villagers splash water on the spot and it is ready for kolata.


On Saturday morning, the villagers gather here and worship their cattle to the accompaniment of kombu, kahale, thamate, nipiri and others.


The villagers and the cattle then trek all the way to Markal, 12 km away, where four arecanut trees are felled with the hombale (spadix) of one of them intact.


The felled arecanut trees are tied to the nogas (yokes) of four cattle pairs which are made to run a race to Mallinathapura. The race draws thousands of people and by dusk the caravan arrives at Mallinathapura.


Over the next few days, the four areca palms are erected before the Shilanthavva temple and the stage is set for the most exciting part of the festival: the swing. Two Urs children, a boy and a girl, take the first turn on the swing. The two are taken in a procession to the swing, which they mount and play, throwing open the swing for the rest.


Thatte Habba reaches its climactic phase on a Monday after Shivarathri with the observation of Para. This year, it was on March 5. At Para, a mass dinner is arranged under a banyan tree in the temple premises, where there is no bar on any caste or community. Dalits, in fact, break their day-long fast with the Para dinner.


After the dinner, the idol of Basaveshwara is carried in a procession in a kurju, a triangular shaped wooden structure all spruced up with flowers, bright hued fabrics, beads and other pieces of bric-a-brac. Through the procession, traditional folk dances like kolata are performed.


Children, youth and the old alike let their hair down to the scintillating beats of the thamate.
The following day, Kurubas worship Mugamashnamma and Honnahuthamma. That night the kurju procession is again taken out, with the two deities accompanying it.


A five-headed torch illuminating the path is literally the day’s highlight. On Wednesday, it is time for more merriment with okali (splashing of colours).


Once Ugadi is over, another kurju procession brings the festival to an end. The thattes are then removed and returned to the four groups.


Looking back


Legend has it that a Jain muni, Mallinatha, founded this village and hence the name Mallinathapura.


About 10 km from the Malavalli town of Mandya district and 29 miles east of Mysore, Mallinathapura is at the intersection of the Mysore-Kanakapura and Maddur–Shivanasamudr am roads.


According to an inscription dating back to 1685, to the time of Chikka Devaraja Wodeyar, Malavalli was a large fort built of mud and stone, which is now in ruins. In the fort area, there is an old Hoysala temple dedicated to Sarangapani, whose 5-feet high image in ‘samabhanga’ posture is well worked.


Haidar Ali gave Malavalli as a jagir to his son Tippu and it enjoyed considerable prosperity. About two miles from the town and close to the new Mysore road stands the scene of a historic battle, fought between the British army under General Harris and Tippu Sultan, during the former’s march on Srirangapatnam. After the action, Tippu is believed to have destroyed Malavalli to prevent it from being of any use to the British.

August 31, 2007 Posted by | EKAVI COORG-KODAGU, History of Karnataka | 1 Comment

masti venkatesha iyengar

ಸಣ್ಣ ಕತೆಯಾದ ದೊಡ್ಡವರು
ಮಾಸ್ತಿ ವೆಂಕಟೇಶ ಅಯ್ಯಂಗಾರ್‌

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ಅವರ ಕತೆಗಳಲ್ಲಿ ಜಾಣತನದ ಹೇಳಿಕೆಗಳೇ ಇಲ್ಲ . ಅವು ಅಪ್ಪಟ ಕಲಾಕೃತಿಗಳು ಅಷ್ಟೇ. ಅಲ್ಲಿ ಲೇಖಕ ತಾನು ಕೇಳಿದ ಕತೆಯನ್ನು ನಮಗೆ ದಾಟಿಸಿಬಿಡುತ್ತಾನೆ. ಹಾಗೆ ದಾಟಿಸುವಾಗ ಆ ಕತೆಗೆ ಲೇಖಕನ ಹಮ್ಮಿನ ಲೇಪವಾಗಲೀ, ಬೌದ್ಧಿಕತೆಯ ಪ್ರದರ್ಶನವಾಗಲೀ ಇರುವುದಿಲ್ಲ . ಅದೇ ಅವರ ಶಕ್ತಿ.

* ಸತ್ಯವ್ರತ ಹೊಸಬೆಟ್ಟು

Masti Venkatesh Iyengarತುಂಬ ಸಜ್ಜನರೂ ಆಗಿದ್ದ ಮಾಸ್ತಿ ವೆಂಕಟೇಶ ಅಯ್ಯಂಗಾರರನ್ನು ಈಗಿನ ಕಾಲದ ಸಾಹಿತಿಗಳೂ ಕನ್ನಡ ಪ್ರೇಮಿಗಳೂ ಮಾಸ್ತಿ- ಕನ್ನಡದ ಆಸ್ತಿ ಎಂದೊಂದು ಪ್ರಾಸಬದ್ಧ ಹೇಳಿಕೆ ಒಗೆದು ಕೈ ಬಿಡುವುದುಂಟು. ಅವರು ಶ್ರೀನಿವಾಸ ಕಾವ್ಯನಾಮದಿಂದ ಬರೆದರೂ ಉಳಿದುಕೊಂಡದ್ದು ಮಾಸ್ತಿ . ಕುವೆಂಪು ಥರದವರು ಕಾವ್ಯನಾಮದಿಂದ ಹೆಸರಾದರೆ, ಮಾಸ್ತಿ ನಿಜ ನಾಮಧೇಯದಿಂದಲೇ ಹೆಸರು ಮಾಡಿದರು.

ಮಾಸ್ತಿಯವರಿಗೆ ಜ್ಞಾನಪೀಠ ಬಂದದ್ದು ತಡವಾಗಿ. ಅವರಿಗಿಂತ ಚಿಕ್ಕವರಿಗೆಲ್ಲ ಬಂದ ನಂತರ. ಆಗ ಯಾರೋ ಮಾಸ್ತಿಯವರನ್ನು ಕೇಳಿದರಂತೆ – ನಿಮಗಿಂತ ಚಿಕ್ಕವರಿಗೆಲ್ಲ ಜ್ಞಾನಪೀಠ ಬಂದ ನಂತರ ನಿಮಗೆ ಬರ್ತಾ ಇದೆ. ಈ ಬಗ್ಗೆ ಬೇಸರವಿದೆಯಾ? ಮಾಸ್ತಿ ಜಾಣರು. ಮನೇಲಿ ಸಿಹಿ ತಿಂಡಿ ಮಾಡಿದ್ರೆ ಮೊದಲು ಯಾರಿಗೆ ಕೊಡ್ತಾರೆ ಹೇಳಿ? ಚಿಕ್ಕೋರಿಗೆ ತಾನೇ? ಹಾಗೇ ಒಳ್ಳೇದನ್ನೆಲ್ಲ ಮೊದಲು ಚಿಕ್ಕೋರಿಗೆ ಕೊಟ್ಟು ನಂತರ ನಾವು ತಗೋಬೇಕು. ಉಳಿದವರೆಲ್ಲ ತಮಗಿಂತ ಚಿಕ್ಕವರು ಅನ್ನೋದನ್ನು , ತಮಗೆ ತಡವಾಗಿ ಬಂದದ್ದರಿಂದ ಬೇಸರವಾಗಿಲ್ಲ ಅನ್ನೋದನ್ನು ಮಾಸ್ತಿ ತೋರಿಸಿಕೊಟ್ಟಿದ್ದು ಹೀಗೆ. ಆದರೆ, ಅವರ ಕತೆಗಳಲ್ಲಿ ಇಂಥ ಜಾಣತನದ ಹೇಳಿಕೆಗಳೇ ಇಲ್ಲ . ಅವು ಅಪ್ಪಟ ಕಲಾಕೃತಿಗಳು ಅಷ್ಟೇ. ಅಲ್ಲಿ ಲೇಖಕ ತಾನು ಕೇಳಿದ ಕತೆಯನ್ನು ನಮಗೆ ದಾಟಿಸಿಬಿಡುತ್ತಾನೆ. ಹಾಗೆ ದಾಟಿಸುವಾಗ ಆ ಕತೆಗೆ ಲೇಖಕನ ಹಮ್ಮಿನ ಲೇಪವಾಗಲೀ, ಬೌದ್ಧಿಕತೆಯ ಪ್ರದರ್ಶನವಾಗಲೀ ಇರುವುದಿಲ್ಲ . ಅದೇ ಅವರ ಶಕ್ತಿ .

ಕೋಲಾರ ಜಿಲ್ಲೆಯ ಮಾಲೂರು ತಾಲ್ಲೂಕು ಹೊಂಗೇನಹಳ್ಳಿಯಲ್ಲಿ ಮಾಸ್ತಿ ಹುಟ್ಟಿದ್ದು 1891 ರ ಜೂನ್‌ 6 ರಂದು. ತಂದೆ ರಾಮಸ್ವಾಮಿ ಅಯ್ಯಂಗಾರ್‌. ತಾಯಿ ತಿರುಮಲಮ್ಮ . ಬಡ ಕುಟುಂಬದಿಂದ ಬಂದ ಮಾಸ್ತಿಗೆ, ಓದಿನಲ್ಲಿ ಅಪಾರ ಆಸಕ್ತಿ . ಅದಕ್ಕೆ ನೀರೆರದವರು ಅಧ್ಯಾಪಕ ನಾರಣಪ್ಪ . ಹೊಂಗೇನಹಳ್ಳಿಯ ಶಿವಾರಪಟ್ಟಣದ ಪುಟ್ಟ ಸ್ಕೂಲಿನಿಂದ ಬೆಂಗಳೂರಿನ ಸೆಂಟ್ರಲ್‌ ಕಾಲೇಜಿನಲ್ಲಿ ಪಡೆದುಕೊಂಡ ಬಿ.ಎ. ಪದವಿ ತನಕ ಮಾಸ್ತಿ ಓದಿನಲ್ಲಿ ಹಿಂದೆ ಬಿದ್ದವರಲ್ಲ . ಮುಂದೆ ಇಂಗ್ಲಿಷ್‌ ಉಪನ್ಯಾಸಕರಾಗಿ, ಮೈಸೂರು ಸಿವಿಲ್‌ ಪರೀಕ್ಷೆಯಲ್ಲಿ ಪಾಸಾಗಿ ಅಸಿಸ್ಟೆಂಟ್‌ ಕಮಿಷನರ್‌ ಆಗಿ, ರಾಜಸೇವಾಪ್ರಸಕ್ತ ಬಿರುದನ್ನೂ ಮಾಸ್ತಿ ಪಡೆದದ್ದು ಮತ್ತೊಂದು ಕತೆ.

ಮಾಸ್ತಿಯವರಿಗೆ ಇಂಗ್ಲಿಷ್‌ನಲ್ಲಿ ಬರೆದು ಜನಪ್ರಿಯರಾಗಬೇಕೆಂದು ಆಸೆಯಿತ್ತು . ಆದರೆ, ಅವರ ವೃತ್ತಿ ಜೀವನದ ಘಟನೆಯಾಂದು ಅವರು ಕನ್ನಡದಲ್ಲಿ ಬರೆಯುವಂತೆ ಪ್ರೇರೇಪಿಸುತ್ತದೆ. ಕೋಲಾರದ ಮಲ್ಲಸಂದ್ರ ಗ್ರಾಮದ ಜಮಾಬಂದಿಗೆ ಹೋದಾಗ ಅವರು ತಪ್ಪು ಮಾಡಿದ ರೈತನ ಮೇಲೆ ರೇಗುತ್ತಾರೆ. ಏನಯ್ಯಾ.. ನಿಂಗೆ ರೂಲ್ಸ್‌ ಗೊತ್ತಿಲ್ವಾ ? ಅದಕ್ಕೆ ಆತ ರೂಲ್ಸ್‌ ಎಲ್ಲ ಇಂಗ್ಲೀಷಿನಲ್ಲಿದೆ. ನನಗೆ ಹೇಗೆ ತಿಳಿಯಬೇಕು ಎಂದು ವಿನಯದ ಮಾತಾಡುತ್ತಾನೆ. ಅದು ತನಗೆ ಆಡಳಿತದ ವೈಫಲ್ಯಕ್ಕೆ ಕಾರಣವೇನು ಅನ್ನೋದನ್ನು ತಿಳಿಸಿಕೊಟ್ಟಿತು ಅನ್ನುತ್ತಾರೆ ಮಾಸ್ತಿ. ಅಂದಿನಿಂದ ಅವರು ಕನ್ನಡದ ಆಸ್ತಿಯಾಗುತ್ತಾರೆ.

ಅವರ ಮೊದಲ ಕತೆ ರಂಗನ ಮದುವೆ. ಅವರ ಹದಿನಾರು ಕಥಾ ಸಂಕಲನಗಳು ಬಿಡುಗಡೆಯಾಗಿವೆ. ಸುಬ್ಬಣ್ಣ , ಚನ್ನಬಸವ ನಾಯಕ, ಚಿಕ್ಕವೀರ ರಾಜೇಂದ್ರ, ಶೇಷಮ್ಮ , ಮಾತುಗಾರ ರಾಮಣ್ಣ ಮುಂತಾದ ಕಾದಂಬರಿಗಳನ್ನೂ, ನವರಾತ್ರಿ ಮಾಲಿಕೆಯಿಂದ ಹಿಡಿದು ಶ್ರೀರಾಮ ಪಟ್ಟಾಭಿಷೇಕದ ತನಕ ಕವನ ಸಂಕಲನಗಳನ್ನೂ, ಕಾಕನಕೋಟೆಯಂಥ ನಾಟಕಗಳನ್ನೂ ಬರೆದಿದ್ದಾರೆ. ಜೊತೆಗೆ ಜೀವನಚರಿತ್ರೆ, ವಿಮರ್ಶೆ ಕೂಡ ಬರೆದುದ್ದುಂಟು. ಮಾಸ್ತಿಯವರ ಕತೆಯನ್ನು ಅಜ್ಜ ಹಾಗೂ ಮೊಮ್ಮಗಳು ಜೊತೆಗೆ ಕುಳಿತು ಓದಬಹುದು. ಅಷ್ಟು ಸಜ್ಜನಿಕೆಯೂ ಸುಸಂಸ್ಕೃತವೂ ಆಗಿರುತ್ತವೆ. ಈಗಿನ ಕತೆಗಳು ಹಾಗಿಲ್ಲ ಎಂದು ಅನಂತ ಮೂರ್ತಿಯವರೊಮ್ಮೆ ಹೇಳಿದ್ದರು. ಅದು ನಿಜ.

ಜನನ- 06.06.1891 (ಕೋಲಾರ ಜಿಲ್ಲೆಯ ಮಾಸ್ತಿ) , ಮರಣ- 06.06.1986

ಪ್ರಮುಖ ಕೃತಿಗಳು

ಕಾದಂಬರಿಗಳು : ಚೆನ್ನಬಸವ ನಾಯಕ, ಚಿಕವೀರ ರಾಜೇಂದ್ರ, ಸುಬ್ಬಣ್ಣ
ನಾಟಕಗಳು : ಕಾಕನಕೋಟೆ, ಯಶೋಧರಾ, ಕಾಳಿದಾಸ, ಶಿವ ಛತ್ರಪತಿ
ಆತ್ಮ ಕಥನ : ಭಾವ
ಕವನ ಸಂಕಲನ : ಬಿನ್ನಹ, ತಾವರೆ
ಖಂಡಕಾವ್ಯ : ಶ್ರೀರಾಮ ಪಟ್ಟಾಭಿಷೇಕ

ಜ್ಞಾನಪೀಠ ಪ್ರಶಸ್ತಿ ದೊರೆತ ವರ್ಷ : 1983 (ಚಿಕವೀರ ರಾಜೇಂದ್ರ)

July 28, 2007 Posted by | Dewan Purnaiah, MASTI | 3 Comments

MASTI VENKATESHA IYENGAR(A Story)

MASTI VENKATESHA IYENGAR
(A Story)

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1
On an evening some of us were having a chat in our senior friend’s bookshop located in the
Basavanagudi area. As the conversation proceeded, the topic for the day settled down on ghosts and
spirits. Since all of us present there that day, were interested in literature, naturally the conversation
moved towards the stories of the supernatural. I referred to writers like Saki, HG Wells and even Ray
Bradbury among others. As we also drifted to talk about Kannada stories, we got down to discuss
Masti Venkatesha Iyengar’s stories – “A Ghost from Malnad”, “The Spirit of Venkata Rao” etc.
The conversation continued.
Our senior friend is a well-read man. He also seems rational. He does not believe in god or ghost. In
spite of his known stance, he started narrating his experience that went against his beliefs. As a
prelude, he quoted Masti Venkatesha Iyengar from one of his stories: “though several of us do not
believe in the existence of spirits, we are also not sure that they do not exist.” Our friend was
essentially narrating his own experience. I have the urge to narrate this story to you, only because
of the sheer coincidence involved in the whole affair – of spirits appearing in Masti’s stories; of my
name being the same as Masti’s friend ‘Sriram’ who often appeared in his stories and so on. In fact
our senior friend who is a better storywriter could himself have written this story. But as he did not
appear to be inclined to do so, I am going ahead to write it and share his experience with you too.
2
Our friend has been running this bookshop in Basavanagudi since a few years. He being a writer and
a lover of literature liked to spend most of his time amidst books. He usually started his day with a
long walk in the Lalbagh garden. He would come back home for his breakfast, after which he would
leave for the shop. He normally spent all his time in the shop. He used to read, write and when he
was tired, even take a nap there. He had a small anteroom built on the rear side of the shop,
especially for this purpose. In the anteroom he had a portable television set and a video player. He
used them to watch a few good movies and to watch the daily news. In this way, our friend had
made his shop an integral part of his lifestyle. Normally he opened the shop at Nine in the morning.
He used to lock it up and go home only after the evening news was broadcast on the television. Our
friend had appointed two youngsters to look after the daily transactions of the shop. Since the boys
usually looked after all the transactions, our friend spent more time in the ante-room than in the hall
outside.
Page 2/ Masti Venkatesha Iyengar: M S Sriram
It was not easy to meet our friend, when he was in the anteroom. Visitors had to first give an
account of their identity and the purpose of visit to one of the boys outside. The boy would then
convey this to our friend. If our friend was not on any important assignment or he was not writing
anything and was in a good mood, he would grant an interview to the visitor. In fact there was a
reason why he used to hide himself inside the shop like this. As a bookseller, our friend had
observed that, of late, the number of people reading books in Kannada had drastically gone down,
while the number of authors who wrote was going up in geometric proportions! And so, there used to
be a large number of young poets who published their own work and brought it to our friend for
display and sale. Since our friend was also a writer, he used to yield to their pleas and stock those
books. He would never say ‘no’ and as a result his stocks of unsold books turned out to be very large.
So, he had now developed this plan of staying inside, in the ante-room whilst the boys sent away
such visitors saying – “the boss is out” or “the owner is writing something important, he would not
like to be disturbed”. All of us knew about this strategy. He would say “It is one matter to have a
love for literature and quite another to run a business, is it not?” and we would all agree. We should
agree with whoever utters the truth, is it not?
3
I have given all these details only because I thought it was essential as a background for me to
narrate the story of our friend. I shall now narrate the experience our friend had on an evening
sometime ago. Our friend had a habit of taking some alcoholic drinks sometimes in the evenings,
when he felt that he was not in the right spirits. Even this activity was carried out in the anteroom.
These days, we cannot say that one should hold a man guilty for having such a habit. However, since
our friend was already middle aged, he had the fear and guilt, natural to his generation of people,
who thought that alcohol was a taboo. In any case, our friend was no drunkard by any standards.
One such evening, our friend was feeling lonely and did not know what better to do. None of us had
gone to meet him in the shop that day. At around seven in the evening he thought he would down a
few drinks and started. “One was not sure whether it was a full moon or a new moon day. The whole
sky was cloudy and it was chilly all around” – our friend told us – “it was darkness that had enveloped
the environment”. Before our friend started the ritual, he came out and told the boys just this: “Do
not allow any strangers inside the room”. He then went inside to start his evening ritual.
At around eight in the evening the younger boy came inside and took leave of our friend. At around
nine, the older boy entered. It was the usual practice that he would pull the shutter down at around
that time and leave. As soon as he entered the room, our friend is said to have told him: “Okay, try
M S Sriram: Masti Venkatesha Iyengar / Page3
and come early tomorrow, you will have to go to Rajajinagar and get some books from Mavinakere
Ranganathan”.
The boy acknowledged our friend’s words but did not move out. “Sir an elderly person is here to see
you” he said. Our friend was getting to be tipsy and was in no mood to meet people. “Who is it?
Is that somebody new to the shop?” he asked, for which the boy said “Yes sir, it is Masti Venkatesha
Iyengar”.
It was difficult to imagine what all could have happened in our friend’s mind. If some soul who had
died a few years ago had come and was waiting for an interview, anybody was bound to be nervous.
Our friend was no exception. He however thought that the boy might have made a mistake. It was
irritating. After all, working in a bookshop, the least he should have known was which of the authors
were alive and which of them were dead, is it not? Our friend had some hope and therefore he
wanted to be doubly sure. “Go out and have a look again. Find out what his name is?” he said
sending the boy out.
The boy went out and came inside very quickly. “Yes sir, he is Masti Venkatesha Iyengar for sure. He
is quite old and has these three red and white lines drawn on his forehead…” he reported back.
The ghost of Malnad and the spirit of Venkata Rao must have started dancing violently in our friend’s
mind. “Why should an old soul which led such a pure, contented, peaceful life and lived for almost a
century torment me?” This and other such questions must have emerged in our friend’s mind. It
seems the boy just then walked out of the room. Our friend, who was now a little shaken up and
really nervous at the thought of Masti Venkatesha Iyengar catching him at it, quickly put the bottle
and glasses away. He walked out of the room and quickly closed the door behind him. When he
looked up, nobody except the boy was around.
“I saw that your mood was not all right sir, so I just sent him away. He said that he would meet you
in a day or two..” the boy said.
Our friend narrated this experience to all of us. “You know, now a days I do not consume alcohol
alone. I avoid it in the evenings. The name of Masti Venkatesha Iyengar seems to instil some sense
of fear in me” he said.
I tried to find a rational explanation for what might have happened that evening. “Some elderly
Iyengar gentleman must have come to look you up” – I said – “the boy who would have seen Masti
Page 4/ Masti Venkatesha Iyengar: M S Sriram
Venkatesha Iyengar’s photographs on his books must have thought this man to be him” and tried to
fly more kites with my possibilities when our friend nodded his head sideways.
“See, it is not important to find out what happened in reality that evening” – our friend explained –
“the fact is that I was there, alone, consuming alcohol, in the evening. The boy uttered the name of
none other than Masti Venkatesha Iyengar. It might have been a divine intervention to put the name
of this great man on the boy’s lips. What is more important is the power the name seems to carry. If
the boy had uttered any other name, I would not have been so disturbed as to give up consuming
alcohol alone, right? This is what is of prime importance.”
All of us agreed with what he said. We should agree with whoever utters the truth, is it not

July 28, 2007 Posted by | Dewan Purnaiah, MASTI | 3 Comments

Masti Club-after the father of short fiction in Kannada,

A club with character

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The presence of Masti Venkatesha Iyengar is still palpable in the 103-year-old Basavanagudi Club, which is belatedly celebrating its centenary now



Masti Venkatesha Iyengar’s presence in this 103-year-old club is still palpable. Till his death in 1986, he visited it every evening.

NO OTHER club in Bangalore, perhaps, carries as much literary aura as the Basavanagudi Union and Services Club does. Which other club, after all, has the distinction of being nicknamed after a literary giant?

Better known as Masti Club — after the father of short fiction in Kannada, Masti Venkatesha Iyengar, its most cherished member — the 103-year-old place preserves his memory in many corners. A huge portrait of the Jnanpith-award winner hangs in the library named after him. On the other wall is the framed poem on Masti by K.S. Nissar Ahmed, which talks at length about his regular visits to the club for 30-odd years. A hall in the first floor too is named after Masti. A small bunch of friends, who played cards with him, run an annual cards tournament in his memory. Old timers tell you that other literary luminaries such as Bendre and D.V. Gundappa also visited the club once in a way. The club has the distinction of hosting a lecture on Vendanta by Ramana Maharshi.

So, it’s not surprising that the valedictory function (tomorrow at the club, at 6.30 p.m.) of the belated centenary celebrations will be presided over by two men of letters — lexicographer G. Venkatasubbiah and Nissar Ahmed.

Not that the club set out to be a cultural and literary centre when it was started in a rented building in 1901 by a retired professor, Bellave Venkatanarayanappa. It was an attempt at providing “club amenities” — a colonial idea not familiar to those who lived beyond Cantonment area — to South Bangaloreans retired from Government service. The club rules were amended later, though, since there were no takers among the old for tennis. The club shifted to its own building (the existing one), in 1912. T.R. Raghavendra Rao, the present Secretary, remembers the contribution of one of the early members, K.S. Aiyar, who built a hall as an “octogenarian’s tribute to the climate and the amenities of the garden city of Bangalore”.


The oldest rule book available in the club office, dating back to 1940, documents some interesting historical details. It condoles the death of Yuvaraja Kanteerava Narasimharaja Wadiyar and Maharaja Krishnaraja Wadiyar, and says that some members of the club participated in the coronation ceremony of Jayachamaraja Wadiyar. It carries a message from Mirza Ismail, the Diwan of Mysore, on the occasion of the opening of the hall built by K.S. Aiyar, who, incidentally, passed away that very year. The list of newspapers and journals that the club got then makes for an eclectic range — Harijan, Vedantakesari, The Indian Theosophist, The Animals’ Friend, The Indian Concrete Journal, The Co-operative Productive Review, The Oriental Watchman, Herald of Health, and so on. That was also the year the subscription fee of the club was hiked by four annas, from Rs. 1.

An important landmark in the club’s history was Masti becoming a member of it in the late Forties. Masti came to the club everyday to play cards at 6 p.m. and left for his home in Gavipuram at 8 p.m., till he died in 1986. “I might miss the day’s Sandhyavandane, but not the visit to the club,” the devout man often told his friends. He never lingered, though, beyond the appointed time.

K.R. Venkateshaachar, who has been a member since 1953, was one of those who shared the table with Masti. “You could set your watch by the time of his arrival and departure!” he recalls. “He came in his signature attire — overcoat, cap, umbrella, and shawl — and had a smile for everyone.” He played a game called 28, with half paisa as stake. “But we played with such seriousness that you would think we were playing for thousands!” In his poem, Nissar talks about how Masti pulled up those who didn’t play the game in the right spirit, with a: “Let us play the game for the game’s sake.”


Mr. Venkateshaachar also remembers Masti as a generous soul who always helped fellow club members. “He would order dosas from Vidyarthi Bhavan for everyone whenever there was a committee meeting. `Two each, Acharre!’ he would insist. Those were days when we didn’t have a canteen or a bar,” recalls Mr. Venkateshaachar.

It’s interesting that Masti, who retired as the Excise Commissioner, fought tooth and nail against the setting up of a bar at the club. “The members had to convince him that it was important for revenue generation,” remembers Mr. Venkateshaachar. “But he never stepped into the bar even once.”

Is it true that the club, in the initial years, was called “Brahmanara koota”, because of its location in a predominantly Brahmin locality and the fact that a good number of men in service during the Raj days were Brahmins? Mr. Venkateshaachar vehemently denies it, saying that the club welcomed people from all sections since the days he can remember.

The club has, in any case, come a long way since then. It has most of the amenities that normal clubs have. A centenary building will also come up on the premises soon. But some things have remained constant down the ages. “It is still a middle-class man’s club,” say a long-time member, K. Visvesvara. The club has, undoubtedly, managed to hang on to its South Bangalore character. After all, at Tagore Circle, where the club is located, you can still hear the chirping of birds above the din of passing vehicles if you strain your ears hard enough!

(The valedictory of the centenary celebrations begins at 6.30 p.m. at the club tomorrow.)

BAGESHREE S.

http://www.hinduonnet.com/thehindu/mp/2004/05/22/stories/2004052200380300.htm

July 28, 2007 Posted by | Dewan Purnaiah, MASTI | Leave a comment

History of Karnataka

History of Karnataka

History of Karnataka – written in Kannada- RECENTLY WRITTEN
http://picasaweb.google.com/vmkumaraswamy/HistoryOfKarnataka?authkey=D0hjseNSVwk

A Pre-historic Brief:
The pre-historic culture of Karnataka, the hand-axe culture, compares favourable with the one that existed in Africa and is quite distinct from the pre-historic culture of North India. The early inhabitants of Karnataka knew the use of iron far earlier than the North, and iron weapons, dating back to 1200 B.C have found at Hallur in Dhaward district.Early rulers:
The early rulers of Karnataka were predominantly from North India. Parts of Karnataka were subject to the rule of the Nandas and the Mauryas.

The Shathavahanas (30 B.C to 230 A.D of paithan) ruled over extensive areas in Northern Karnataka. Karnataka fell into the hands of the Pallavas of Kanchi. Pallavas domination was ended by indigenous dynasties, the Kadambas of Banavasi and the Gangas of Kolar, who divided Karnataka between themselves.

The Kadambas

The Kadamba Dynasty was founded by Mayurasharman in c. 345 A.D. Subjected to some kind of humiliation at the Pallava capital, this young brahmin gave up his hereditary priestly vacation and took to the life of a warrior and revolted aganist the Pallavas. The Pallavas were forced to recognise him as a sovereign when he crowned himself at Banavasi in Uttar Kannada Dt. One of his successors, Kakustha Varman (c. 435-55) was such a powerful ruler that even the Vakatakas and the guptas cultivated martial relationship with this family during his time. The great poet Kalidasa deems to have visited his court.

The Gangas

The Gangas started their rule from c. 350 from Kolara and later their capital was shifted to Talakadu (Mysore Dt.). Till the advent of the Badami Chalukyas, they were almost a sovereign power. Later they continued to rule ove Gangavadi (which comprised major parts of South Karnataka) till the close of the 10th century as subordinates of the Badami Chalukyas and the Rastrakutas.

The Badami Chalukyas

It is the Chalukyas of Badami who brought the whole of Karnataka under a single rule. They are also remembered for their contributions in the feild of art. Their monuments are found at Badami, Aihole and Pattadakal. The first great prince of the dynasty was Pulikeshin I (c. 540-66 A.D) who built the ashwamedha (horse sacrifice) after subduing many rulers including the Kadambas.

His grandson, Pulikeshin II (609-42) built a vast empire which extended from Narmada in the north to the Cauveri in the south. In the east, he overthrew the Vishnukundins and appointed his younger brother Vishnuvardhana, the voceroy of Vengi.

The Chalukyan empire included not only the whole of karnataka and Maharashtra, but the greater part of Gujarat, Madhya Pradesh and Andra, and also parts of Orissa and Tamilnadu. Vikramaditya II (693-734) in the line defeated the Pallavas, entered the Pallava capital Kanchi victorious. The Chalukyan power was weakened in the long run by its wars with the Pallavas.

The Rastrakutas

In 753, Danthidurga, the Rastrakuta feudatory of the Chalukyas, overthrew the Chalukya king Keerthivarman II, and his family inherited the fortunes of the Chalukyas. The engraving of the celebrated monolithic Kailas temple at Ellora (now in Maharshtra) is attribuited to Danthidurga’s uncle, Krishna I (756-74). Krishna’s son, Dhruva (780-93) crossed the Narmada, and after defeating celebrated princes like Vathsaraja (of the Gurjara Pratheehara family of central India) and Dharmapala of Bengal, extracted tribute from the ruler of Kanauji, ‘the seat of India’s paramountry’. His son Givinda III (793-814) also repeated the feast when he defeated Nagabhata II, the Gujara Pratheehara and Dharmapala of Bengal and again extracted tribute from the King of Kanauj.The achievements of the Chalukyas of Badami and the Rastrakutas by defeating the rulers of Kanauj have made their erathe “Age of Imperial Karnataka”.

The Kalyana Chalukyas

The Chalukyas of Kalyana overthrew the Rastrakutas in 973, Someshwara I (10432068), succeeded in resisting the efforts of the Cholas to subdue Karnataka, and he built a new capital, Kalyana (mordern Basava Kaluyana in Bidar Dt.) The Chola king Rajadhiraja was killed by him at Koppar in 1054.

His son Vikramaditya VI (10762127) has been celebrated in history as the patron of the great jurist Vijnaneshwara, (work: mitakshara, standard work on Hindu law), and the emperor has been immortalised by poet Dilhana (haling from Kashmir) who chose this prince himself as the hero for his sanskrit poem, Vikramankadeva Charitam. Vikramaditya defeated the Paramaras of Centeral India thrice. In the South he captured Kanchi from the Cholas in 1085, and in the East, he conqured Vengi in 1093. His commander, Mahadeva built the Mahadeva temple at Itagi (Raichur Dt.) the finest Chalukyan monument. His son Someshwara III (1127-39) was a great scholar. He has written Manasollasa, a sanskrit encyclopedia and Vikrmankabhyudayam, a peom of which his father is the hero,

The Sevunas

The Sevunas (or Yadavas) who were foundatories of the Rastrakutas and the chalukyas of Kalyana, became a sovereign power from the days of Bhillama V (1173-92) who founded the new capital Devagiri (modern Daulathabad in Maharastra). Bhillama V captured Kalyana in 1186, and later clashed with Hoysala Ballala II at Sorarturu in 1190. Though he lost the battle.He built a vast kingdom, extending from the Narmada to the Krishna. His son Jaitugi (1192-99) not only defeated Parmara Subhata varma, but also killed the Kakatiya kings of Orangal, Rudra and Mahadeva.

Singhana II (11992247), the greatest of the Sevunas, extended the Sevuna kingdom upto the Tungabhadra. But the Servunas were defeated by the army of the Delhi Sultan in 1296, and again in 1307 and finally in 1318, and thus the kingdom was wiped out. The Sevunas have become in immortal in history by the writings of the mathematician Baskarasharya, of the great writer on music, Sharngadeva, and of the celebrated scholar Hemadri.

The Hoysalas

The Hoyasala continued the great traditions of their art-loving overlords the Kalyana Chalukyas, and their fine temples are found at Beluru, Helebidu and Somanathapura. Vishnuvardhana (11082141) freed Gangavadi from the Cholas (who had held it from 999), and in commemoration of his victory, built the celebrated Vijayanarayana (Chennakeshva) Temple at Belur.

His commander Katamalla built the famous Hoysaleshwara temple at Halebidu.

Though Vishnuvardhana did not succeed in his serious effort to overthrow the Chalukyan yoke, his grandson Balla II (11732220) not only became free, but even defeated Sevuna Bhillama V at Soraturu in 1190, after having defeated Chalukyas Someshwara IV in 1187. When the Cholas were attacted by the Pandyas in Tamilnadu, Balla II drove the Pandyas back and thus assumed the title “Establisher of the Chola Kingdom”. Later, in the days of his son Narasimha II (1120-35), Hoysalas even secured a foothold in Tamilnadu and Kuppam, near Srirangam became a second capital of the Hoysalas.

Ballala III (12912343), the last Hoysala, had to struggle hard to hold his own against the invasion of the Delhi Sultan. He died fighting the Sultan of Madhurai. It was his commanders, Harihara and Bukka, who founded the Vijayanagra Kingdom, which later grew to be an empire. Hoyasala age saw great kannada poets like Rudrabhatta, Janna, Harihara and Raghavanka. Hoysala temples at Beluru, Halebidu, Somanathapur, Arasikere, Amritapura etc., are wonderful works of art.

Vijayanagara Empire

When the armies of the Delhi Sultanate destroyed the four great kingdom of the south (the Sevunas, Kakatiyas of Orangal, Hoysalas and of the Pandyas of Madhurai) it looked as if a political power following a religion quite alien to the South was going to dominate the peninsula. Many princes including heroic Kumara Rama, a fudatory from Kamapila in Bellary dist. perished while resisting the onslaughts. When the Vijayanagara Kingdom was founded by the Sangama brothers, people wholeheartedly supported them. Tradition says that sage Vidyaranya had caused a shower of gold to finance the Sangama brothers. Perphaps the sage succeeded in securing financial help from various quarters for the founders of Vijayanagara . Harisha founded the kingdom in about 1336, and he secured control over northern parts of Karnataka and Andhra iron coasts. After the death of Ballala III (1343) and his son Virupaksha Ballala (in 1346), the whole of the Hoysala dominion came under his control. His brother Bukka (1356-77) succeeded in destroying the Madhurai Sultanate. It is this prince who sponsored the writing of the monumental commentary on the vedas: Vedarthaprakasha; the work was completed in the days of his son Harihara II (13772404)

Krishnadevaraya (15092529) was the greatest emperor during his time. He was also a great warrior, scholar and administrator. He secured Raichur Doab in 1512, and later marched victorious into the capitals of his enemies like Bidar (1512) Bijapur (1523) and in the East, Cuttack (1518), the capital of the Gajapatis. His rule saw the reign of peace and prosperity.

In the days of Aravidu Ramaraya (1542-65), Krishnadevaraya’s son-in-law, the four Shashi Sultans attacked the empire, and after killing Ramarya at Rallasathangadi (Rakkasagi-Tangadagi) in 1565, destroyed the capital Vijayanagara.

The Last Rulers:
With the weakening of the Mughul power in the North, the Marathas came to have control over the northern districts of Karnataka. Haidar Ali, Who used power from the Wodeyars of Mysore, merged the Keladi Kingdom in Mysore in 1763. Karnataka came under British rule after the overthrow of Tipu, Haidar’s son in 1799 and the Marathas in 1818 (When the Peshwa was defeated). After having been subjected to a number of administrations during the British rule, Karnataka became a single state in 1956.

TIME LINE of KARNATAKA STATE

First created: 18 Aug 1998
Last updated : June 17,2007

Period Dynasty Important Kings
Pre-historic  
Early years Satavahanas Seemukha
Gowtamiputra
325 A.D.- 540 A.D. Kadambas of Banavasi Mayurasharma
Kakusthaverrma
325 A.D.- 999 A.D. Gangas of Talkad Avinita
Durvinita
Rachamalla
500 A.D. – 757 A.D. Chalukyas of Badami Mangalesha
Pulakeshi II
757 A.D. – 973 A.D. Rashrakootas Krishna I
Govinda III
Nripatunga I
973 A.D. – 1198 A.D. Chalukyas of Kalyan Vikramaditya VI
1198 A.D. – 1312 A.D. Yadavas of Devagiri Singahana II
1000 A.D. – 1346 A.D. Hoysalas Vishnuvardhana
Ballala II
1336 A.D. – 1565 A.D. Vijayanagar Kings Devaraya II
Krishnadevaraya
1347 A.D. – 1527 A.D. Bahamani Kings Mohammed Shah I
Modammed Shah II
1490 A.D. – 1686 A.D. Sultans of Bijapur Yusuf Adil Khan
Ibrahim Adil Shah II
1500 A.D. – 1763 A.D. Nayakas of Keladi Shivappa Nayaka
Queen Chennamma
1399 A.D. – 1761 A.D. Wodeyars of Mysore Ranadheera Kanthirava
Chikkadevaraja
1761 A.D. – 1799 A.D. Hyder Ali and Tippu Sultan Hyder Ali
Tipu Sultan
1800 A.D. Division of Karnataka: But for old Mysore, Karnataka was share among the Bombay and Madras presidencies belonging to the British, The Marathas and the Nizam of Hyderabad.
1800 A.D. – 1831 A.D. Wodeyars of Mysore Krishnaraj Wodeyar III
1831 A.D. – 1881 A.D. British Empire British Commissioners
1881 A.D. – 1950 A.D. Wodeyars of Mysore Krishnaraj Wodeyar IV
Jayachamarajendra Wodeyar
1956 Present day Karnataka is formed.

History of Karnataka

History of Karnataka

Hoysaleshwara Temple, Karnataka Travel AgentsKarnataka, called as Karunadu (elevated land) in ancient times. The course of Karnataka’s history and culture takes us back to pre-historic times. The earliest find of the stone age period in India was a hand axe at Lingasugur in Raichur district. The Ashoka’s rock edicts found in the state indicate that major parts of Northern Karnataka were under the Mauryas. Chandragupta Maurya, the great Indian emperor abdicated the throne and embraced Jainism at Shravanabelagola. Adding new dimensions to the cultural and spiritual ethos of the land, many great dynasties left their imprint upon the aesthetic development of Karnataka’s art forms. Prominent among them were the Chalukyas, the Hoysalas and the mighty Vijayanagara Empire. The Chalukyan’s built some of the very early Hindu temples in India. Aihole turned up as an experimental base for the dynamic creations of architects. The Hoysala’s who ruled from the 11th to the 13th century chiseled their way into the pages of glory by building more than 150 temples, each one is a master piece in its own way. The amazing dexterity and fluidity of expressions at Somnathpur, Halebid and Belur open themselves to the wide eyed wonder in one’s eyes. Vijayanagara, the greatest of all medieval Hindu empires and one of the greatest the world over, fostered the development of intellectual pursuits and fine arts. “The eye of the pupil has never seen a place like it and the ear of intelligence has never been informed that there existed anything to equal it in the world” is what Abdur Razaaq the Persian ambassador had to say about Krishnadevaraya’s time.

Tipu Sultan Tomb, Karnataka Travel AgentsThe Vijayanagara empire with its capital at Hampi fell a victim to the marauding army of the Deccan Sultan in 1565 A.D. As a consequence of this, Bijapur became the most important city of the region. This city is a land of monuments and perhaps no other city except Delhi has as many monuments as Bijapur. The Bahmani Shahis and the Adilshahis of Bijapur have played a notable part in the history of Karnataka by their contribution to the field of art and architecture and also by their propagation of Islam in the state.

Hyder Ali and his valiant son Tipu Sultan are notable figures in the history of the land. They expanded the Mysore kingdom on an unprecedented scale and by their resistance against the British, became personages of world fame. Tipu was a great scholar and lover of literature. His artistic pursuits were also many and he made rich gifts to the Hindu temples. Tipu Sultan “Tiger of Karnataka” was killed in 1799 A.D., and the Mysore throne was handed over to the Wodeyar’s. The whole of Karnataka came under the control of the British in the beginning of the 19th century. The new state was named as new Mysore and the Maharaja of Mysore was appointed Governor by Independent India. This unified state was renamed as Karnataka on November 1, 1973.

Temples of Karnataka
Temples of Karnataka

The State of Karnataka is known for its multitude of tourist attractions and temples. Pilgrimage centers such as Mookambika and Udupi cradled in the western ghats offer a contrast to the ruins of the once grand Vijayanagar edifices at Hampi. The Hoysala temples marked with a profusion of intricate sculpture, and the ancient temples built by the Cholas, and the Chalukyan temples add to the variation in style across this state.

About the Temples of Karnataka: The Chalukyas, the Gangas, the Hoysalas, the Vijayanagar rulers and others contributed to diverse temple styles seen in Karnataka. halei1.jpg (10672 bytes) Halebidua sculptors dream lived in stone. The Hoysaleswara temple in Halebidu is a masterpiece of Hoysala architecture and sculpture.
Mookambika – Kollur: Rich in legend and tradition, this temple at Kollur is closely associated with Adi Sankaracharya. Udupi – is the seat of the Madhva school of philosophy. The Balakrishna temple is one of the well visited pilgrimage centers of Karnataka. Gokarna: This ancient Shiva temple is revered pilgrimage center in Karnataka ; it has been revered by the hymns of the ancient Tamil saints.
Sravanabelagola: The collossal monolithic image of Gomateswara or Bahubali is a familiar sight to those touring Karnataka. gomates3.jpg (10635 bytes) Nandi hills, located near Bangalore is home to the Bhoganandeeswara and Yoganandeeswara temples.
Belur Chennakesava Temple: Explore the rich sculptural wealth of this ancient Hoysala monument built by Vishnuvardhana of the 12th century CE. (article contributed by guest writer).) Somnathpura: The Kesava temple at Somnathapura located near Mysore is a standing illustration of Hoysala art. Belur Chennakesava Temple: Explore the history of this Hoysala monument and experience its sculptural splendour. (article contributed by guest writer).
Srirangapatna near Mysore – the historic capital of Tipu Sultan enshrines Ranganatha and Ranganayaki at the grand Ranganatha temple. Melkote located near Mysore is home to the Tirunarayana temple and is a seat of the Sri Vaishnava tradition. Chamundeswari Temple built at Chamundi hills near Mysore enshrines Chamundeswari the tutelary deity of the Maharajahs of Mysore.
Aihole near Bijapur is one of the centers of early Chalukyan art. The Durga temple is probably the best known of the temples here. patadakl.jpg (19890 bytes) Badami: The ancient town of Vatapi was a capital of the early Chalukyas. It is now known as Badami and it has several temples from the sixth and seventh centuries CE.
Pattadakal, the third in the triad of early Chalukyan art centers near Bijapur has several landmarks in the evolution of temple architecture. Mahakoota is another early Chalukyan temple art repository and is located near Badami. Talakkad near Mysore: This ancient temple at Talakkad near Mysore was patronized by the Cholas of the 12th century CE.
The Virupaksha temple at Vijayanagar dating back to the period of Krishna Deva Raya, enshrines Virupaksha or Pampapati. hampi2.jpg (8469 bytes) The Vitthala temple at Vijayanagar (Hampi) is known for its halls with exquisite pillars, intricate friezes and the a stone chariot.
Subrahmanya is one of the seven revered Mukti stalas of Karnataka and it enshrines Subrahmanya (Kartikeya). The Seven Mukti Stalas of Karnataka associated with Parasurama include some of the well visited pilgrimage shrines such as Kollur, Udupi & Gokarna. Dharmastala – a well visited pilgrimage center in Karnataka enshrines Manjunatha, in this stala of Dharma or righteousness & charity.
Nanjangud: The Shrikanteshwara temple at Nanjangud near Mysore is a revered center of worship. The Kalyani Chalukyas of the 11th & 12th centuries developed a temple style characterized by ornate pillars and doorways. The district of Kolar known more for its gold fields is home to several temples tracing their history through several royal dynasties that ruled the region.
     
Sringeri: The Vidyashankara temple is a magnificient temple built under the patronage of the Vijayanagar empire. sringeri.jpg (23828 bytes) Karnataka Temple Index: This index provides a pointer to the hundreds of temples that dot the state of Karnataka.

History of Karnataka

Hoysaleshwara Temple, Karnataka TourismChandragupta Maurya, the great Indian emperor abdicated the throne and embraced Jainism at Shravanabelagola. Adding new dimensions to the cultural and spiritual ethos of the land, many great dynasties left their imprint upon the aesthetic development of Karnataka’s art forms. Prominent among them were the Chalukyas, the Hoysalas and the mighty Vijayanagara Empire. The Chalukyan’s built some of the very early Hindu temples in India. Aihole turned up as an experimental base for the dynamic creations of architects. The Hoysala’s who ruled from the 11th to the 13th century chiseled their way into the pages of glory by building more than 150 temples, each one is a master piece in its own way.

Karnataka, called as Karunadu (elevated land) in ancient times. The course of Karnataka’s history and culture takes us back to pre-historic times. The earliest find of the stone age period in India was a hand axe at Lingasugur in Raichur district. The Ashoka’s rock edicts found in the state indicate that major parts of Northern Karnataka were under the Mauryas.

Hyder Ali and his valiant son Tipu Sultan are notable figures in the history of the land. They expanded the Mysore kingdom on an unprecedented scale and by their resistance against the British, became personages of world fame. Tipu was a great scholar and lover of literature. His artistic pursuits were also many and he made rich gifts to the Hindu temples. Tipu Sultan “Tiger of Karnataka” was killed in 1799 A.D., and the Mysore throne was handed over to the Wodeyar’s. The whole of Karnataka came under the control of the British in the beginning of the 19th century. The new state was named as new Mysore and the Maharaja of Mysore was appointed Bidar Fort, Karnataka TourismGovernor by Independent India. This unified state was renamed as Karnataka on November 1, 1973.

The Vijayanagara empire with its capital at Hampi fell a victim to the marauding army of the Deccan Sultan in 1565 A.D. As a consequence of this, Bijapur became the most important city of the region. This city is a land of monuments and perhaps no other city except Delhi has as many monuments as Bijapur. The Bahmani Shahis and the Adilshahis of Bijapur have played a notable part in the history of Karnataka by their contribution to the field of art and architecture and also by their propagation of Islam in the state.

The amazing dexterity and fluidity of expressions at Somnathpur, Halebid and Belur open themselves to the wide eyed wonder in one’s eyes. Vijayanagara, the greatest of all medieval Hindu empires and one of the greatest the world over, fostered the development of intellectual pursuits and fine arts. “The eye of the pupil has never seen a place like it and the ear of intelligence has never been informed that there existed anything to equal it in the world” is what Abdur Razaaq the Persian ambassador had to say about Krishnadevaraya’s time.

History of Karnataka

In ancient times, Karnataka was called Karunadu, literally meaning elevated land.

¤ The Early Karnataka

The evidence of Maurayan dynasty in Karnataka is the Ashoka’s rock edicts found in the state. The great Chandragupta Maurya ruled the state and adopted Jainism at Shravanabelagola. After him many other dynasties like the Chalukyas, the Hoysalas and the Vijayanagars ruled it. These dynasties added value to the cultural and spiritual value of the state.

karnatakaAt Aihole in Karanataka, the Chalukyas constructed the early Hindu temples in India. These temples are regarded as the architectural wonders. Similarly, the Hoysala’s who ruled from the 11th to the 13th century, built more than 150 temples having excellent architecture.

¤ Karnataka Under Vijayanagar Empire

The most celebrated dynasty that ruled Karnataka is the Vijayanagar dynasty. The Vijyanagar kings were the greatest of all medieval Hindu empires and were lovers of fine arts. They have contributed a lot to the culture and traditions of the state. Many foreign visitors who came to this place during this period have described it as one of the most prosperous states.

¤ The Fall of Vijayanagar Empire

The grand Vijayanagar dynasty disintegrated with its capital at Hampi after the attack of the Deccan Sultan in 1565 A.D. Therefore, Bijapur was established as the capital and many monuments were build around the city. It was ruled by the Bahmani Shahis and the Adilshahis, who have contributed a lot to the architecture, art and the spread of Islam in the state.

¤ The Muslim Domination and The British Control

Later, the state was ruled by Hyder Ali and his brave son Tipu Sultan. They were responsible for the expansion of the Mysore kingdom. Tipu was a great scholar and lover of literature. He was a good administrator and offered expensive gifts to the Hindu temples. Tipu Sultan was also known as “Tiger of Karnataka”, since he fought bravely with the British and never allowed them to overpower Mysore . He was killed in 1799 A.D. and thus the throne of Mysore went into the hands of Wodeyar’s. In the beginning of the 19th century, entire Karnataka came under the control of the British.

¤ Karnataka Post-Independence

After India’s Independence, the state of Mysore was governed by the Maharaja of Mysore, who was appointed by Independent India. But later, on November 1, 1973, the integrated state was renamed as Karnataka.

 

 

History of Karnataka

Karnataka TourismKarnataka, called as Karunadu (elevated land) in ancient times. The course of Karnataka’s history and culture takes us back to pre-historic times. The earliest find of the stone age period in India was a hand axe at Lingasugur in Raichur district. The Ashoka’s rock edicts found in the state indicate that major parts of Northern Karnataka were under the Mauryas.

Chandragupta Maurya, the great Indian emperor abdicated the throne and embraced Jainism at Shravanabelagola. Adding new dimensions to the cultural and spiritual ethos of the land, many great dynasties left their imprint upon the aesthetic development of Karnataka’s art forms.

Prominent among them were the Chalukyas, the Hoysalas and the mighty Vijayanagara Empire. The Chalukyan’s built some of the very early Hindu temples in India. Aihole turned up as an experimental base for the dynamic creations of architects. The Hoysala’s who ruled from the 11th to the 13th century chiseled their way into the pages of glory by building more than 150 temples, each one is a master piece in its own way.

The amazing dexterity and fluidity of expressions at Somnathpur, Halebid and Belur open themselves to the wide eyed wonder in one’s eyes. Vijayanagara, the greatest of all medieval Hindu empires and one of the greatest the world over, fostered the development of intellectual pursuits and fine arts.

“The eye of the pupil has never seen a place like it and the ear of intelligence has never been informed that there existed anything to equal it in the world” is what Abdur Razaaq the Persian ambassador had to say about Krishnadevaraya’s time.

Karnataka Travel GuideThe Vijayanagara empire with its capital at Hampi fell a victim to the marauding army of the Deccan Sultan in 1565 A.D. As a consequence of this, Bijapur became the most important city of the region. This city is a land of monuments and perhaps no other city except Delhi has as many monuments as Bijapur.

The Bahmani Shahis and the Adilshahis of Bijapur have played a notable part in the history of Karnataka by their contribution to the field of art and architecture and also by their propagation of Islam in the state.

Hyder Ali and his valiant son Tipu Sultan are notable figures in the history of the land. They expanded the Mysore kingdom on an unprecedented scale and by their resistance against the British, became personages of world fame.

Tipu was a great scholar and lover of literature. His artistic pursuits were also many and he made rich gifts to the Hindu temples. Tipu Sultan “Tiger of Karnataka” was killed in 1799 A.D., and the Mysore throne was handed over to the Wodeyar’s.

The whole of Karnataka came under the control of the British in the beginning of the 19th century. The new state was named as new Mysore and the Maharaja of Mysore was appointed Governor by Independent India. This unified state was renamed as Karnataka on November 1, 1973.

 

July 27, 2007 Posted by | EKAVI COORG-KODAGU, History of Karnataka | 11 Comments

Iyengar-Youtube Video-Kakana Kote, Based On Drama Written By Masti Venkatesha Iyengar


BKS Iyengar pranayama
Just One Breath.Sure : 2

Just one breath.


More Iyengar 1938
BKS Iyengar Practicing.Sure : 191 sn

BKS Iyengar practicing.


BKS Iyengar Practicing
BKS Iyengar Practicing Some Backbends In Pune, India 1991.Sure : 161 sn

BKS Iyengar Practicing some backbends in Pune,
India 1991.


B.K.S.Iyengar interview, p.2
For 3AEN (ZAEN) Russian Yoga School, Taken In Jan. 2007 @ Ramamani Iyengar Yoga Institute, Pune Full Text Version Of This Conversation Read @ Www.zaenSure : 146 sn

for 3AEN (ZAEN) russian yoga school, taken
in Jan. 2007 @ Ramamani Iyengar
Yoga Institute, Pune Full text version of
this conversation read @ www.zaen.ru% http://www.zaen.ru/wp/?p=24 It
is also available an audio version
of our interview in enheinced quality
@ address: http://www.zaen.ru/wp/?p=94 soon we
are going to create an english
version of our site. As we
do I’ll get you know!


B. K. S. Iyengar interview, part 1
Taken By 3AEN 08.01.2007 @ Yoga Institute, Pune, India. You Can Also Read Full English/russian Version Of This Conversation @ Www.ZAEN.ru. Is Also AvaSure : 271 sn

Taken by 3AEN 08.01.2007 @ Yoga Institute,
Pune, India. You can also read
full english/russian version of this conversation
@ www.ZAEN.ru. is also available an
audio version of our interview in
enheinced quality @ address: http://www.zaen.ru/wp/?p=94
soon we are going to create
an english version of our site.
As we do I’ll get you
know!


B.K.S. Iyengar interview p.3
Final Part Of 1/2 Hour Interview With Sri B.K.S. Iyengar In The Lounge Of His Yoga Institute In Pune, Taken By Ivan Zassourski Of ZAEN. English VersioSure : 620 sn

final part of 1/2 hour interview with
Sri B.K.S. Iyengar in the lounge
of his Yoga Institute in Pune,
taken by Ivan Zassourski of ZAEN.
English version of interview in written
form: http://www.zaen.ru/wp/?p=24. Full audio @: http://www.zaen.ru/wp/?p=94
Namaste!

   

Jonathan Erman as Alexis Iyengar – Give me that love
From The Stanford Savoyards Production Gilbert And Sullivan’s “The Sorcerer” – Opera Meets Bollywood!Sure : 631 sn

From the Stanford Savoyards production Gilbert and Sullivan’s
“The Sorcerer” Opera meets Bollywood!


Jonathan Erman as Alexis Iyengar
Jonathan Played Alexis In Stanford Savoyards’ Production Of Gilbert And Sullivan’s “The Sorcerer”: Opera Meets Bollywood! In Fall 2006.Sure : 279 sn

Jonathan played Alexis in Stanford Savoyards’ production
of Gilbert and Sullivan’s “The Sorcerer”:
Opera meets Bollywood! in fall 2006.


Iyengar Yoga Brasília
Saiba Mais Sobre Iyengar Yoga, Visite Www.yogabsb.comSure : 164 sn

Saiba mais sobre Iyengar Yoga, visite www.yogabsb.com


Krisnamacharya Yoga Film 1938 (silent)
This Is A Video Made In 1938 Showing The Great Yoga Teacher Demonstrating Asana And Pranyama. He Was The Teacher Of BKS Iyengar And Sri K. Pattahbi JoSure : 145 sn

This is a video made in 1938
showing the Great yoga teacher demonstrating
asana and pranyama. He was the
teacher of BKS Iyengar and Sri
K. Pattahbi Jois, founder the Astanga
style of yoga. The film is
so old that any claim to
copyright has expired.


The Raptor Attack: Amar Iyengar
It Was Believed That Dinosaurs Had All Become Extinct Millions Of Years Ago, However A Recent Discovery In Mesopotamia Of An Anomaly Called The RaptorSure : 110 sn

It was believed that dinosaurs had all
become extinct millions of years ago,
however a recent discovery in Mesopotamia
of an anomaly called the Raptor
Amaracus Iyengarosaurus has proven this belief
false. Fear for your lives!


kari haidanembonu [Kakana Kote]
Song “kari Haidanembonu Madeshwara” From The Movie “Kakana Kote”, Based On Drama Written By Masti Venkatesha IyengarSure : 272 sn

Song “kari haidanembonu Madeshwara” from the movie
“Kakana Kote”, based on drama written
by Masti Venkatesha iyengar


bettada tudiyalli [Kakana Kote]
Song “bettada Tudiyalli” From The Movie “Kakana Kote”, Based On Drama Written By Masti Venkatesha IyengarSure : 7 sn

Song “bettada tudiyalli” from the movie “Kakana
Kote”, based on drama written by
Masti Venkatesha iyengar


ondu dina kari haida
Song “Ondu Dina Kari Haida” From The Movie “Kakana Kote”, Based On Drama Written By Masti Venkatesha IyengarSure : 256 sn

Song “Ondu dina kari haida” from the
movie “Kakana Kote”, based on drama
written by Masti Venkatesha iyengar


Desiree is teaching advanced Anusara Yoga at OMTime
Desiree Rumbaugh Www.desireerumbaugh.com Is Teaching Advanced Level Anusara Students At OMtime Www.omtime.com In Denver. Desirée Has Been A StudenSure : 197 sn

Desiree Rumbaugh www.desireerumbaugh.com is teaching advanced level
Anusara students at OMtime www.omtime.com in
Denver. Desirée has been
a student of Yoga since 1987
and has a strong foundation in
Iyengar Yoga. Since 1993, she has
been fortunate to study extensively with
John Friend and was among the
first teachers to be certified in
Anusara Yoga,


Pranayama: The Yogic Art of Breath
A 10 Minute Quick Explaination Of Pranayama, The Breathing Aspect Of Yoga. Included Are Excerps From Hatha Yoga Pradipika. The 4 Types Of PranayamaSure : 253 sn

A 10 minute quick explaination of pranayama,
the breathing aspect of yoga.
Included are excerps from Hatha Yoga
Pradipika. The 4 types of
pranayama are defined; 5 types of
prana are defined; Plavini, Nadi Shodhana,
Surya Bhedana, Kundalini Agnisara, Bhamari, Anapanasati,
Bhastrika. Quotes from BKS Iyengar,
T. Krishnamacharya, Mataji Nirmala Devi.
Gayatri Mantra, Pranawa Mantra (AUM) both
explained. For a copy of my paper
“Pranayama:THe Yogic Art of Breath” please
message me.


Laurent Dauzou
Renata Reif Entrevista O Professor Parisiense De Iyengar Yoga Para A Revista Prana Yoga Journal.Sure : 122 sn

Renata Reif entrevista o professor parisiense de
Iyengar Yoga para a revista Prana
Yoga Journal.

iyengar – Youtube Video

Kakana kote Kannada Ashwath Masti Venkatesh Iyengar Lokesh Madeshwara” From The Movie “Kakana Kote”, Based On Drama Written By Masti Venkatesha Iyengar

July 22, 2007 Posted by | Dewan Purnaiah, MASTI | Leave a comment