Kannada, Kannadiga, Kannadigaru, Karnataka,

Kannadigarella ondaagi Kannadavannu ulisona, kalisona and belesona

Jnanapith award winner Masti Venkatesh Iyengar 1891-1986

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Masti Venkatesha Iyengar

Take pride and Join : Maasti Community and Information

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Masti Venkatesha Iyengar: 1891-1986

He was born in Masti village of Kolar district. He passed MCS examination in 1913 and securing M.A. in 1914. As a civil servant, he held various positions of high responsibility in different parts of Karnataka, before retiring voluntarily in 1943. His long and diverse career of 3 decades was marked by total dedication to public service and exceptional administrative ability. And his wealth of experience as a bureaucrat gave immense inspiration for his literary works. His pseudonym Srinivasa is as popular as his native village Masti, in Kannada literary circles today.

Eventhough he started composing stories right in his earlier student days, his first published work became the history of modern Kannada short stories. And he was recognized as the “Brahma of Kannada Stories” (Forefather of Short Stories) . His works carry the best elements of literature in story form and with their inimitable language, narrative style and richness of theme and realities, powerfully relate to the readers. His story Subbanna, based on the life of a musician is a good example of this and it has been translated into several Indian and foreign languages.

Honours and awards:
1. “Brahma of Kannada Stories” (“Forefather of Short Stories”)
2. Jnanpith award which came to him in 1983 for his historical novel Chikkaveera Rajendra

Works:
1. ‘Kelavu Sanna Kathegalu’
2. Channabasava Nayaka
3. Chikkaveera Rajendra
4. 3-volume autobiography ‘Bhava’
5. Subbanna
6. Edited the monthly journal ‘Jeevana’ from 1944 – 1965
7. Written more than 120 books in Kannada
8. 17 books in English

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Home of Jnanapith award winner Masti Venkatesh Iyengar

The home of the late Masti Venkatesh Iyengar, Kannada writer and winner of the Jnanapith award. He was famous for his short stories.

http://wikimapia.org/143072/

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bettada tudiyalli [Kakana Kote]

http://www.timetape.com/?tag=iyengar&s=&myid=15&title=ondu%20dina%20kari%20haida

ondu dina kari haidaKakana Kote Kannada Ashwath Masti Venkatesh

ondu dina kari haidaKakana Kote Kannada Ashwath Masti Venkatesh Iyengar videos Kakana Kote Kannada Ashwath Masti Venkatesh Iyengar videos.

July 22, 2007 Posted by | Dewan Purnaiah, MASTI | 6 Comments

Maasti Venkatesh Iyengar:The Father of Kannada Short Stories

ekavi-2.jpg
Take pride and Join : Maasti Community and Information

http://www.orkut.com/Community.aspx?cmm=36294019

Maasti Venkatesh Iyengar (Kannada:ಮಾಸ್ತಿೀ ವೆಂಕಟೇಶ ಐಯಂಗಾರ್) (June 6, 1891June 6, 1986) was a popular writer in Kannada language. He was the fourth person among seven recipients[1] of Jnanpith Award for Kannada the highest literary honour conferred in India. He was popularly referred to as Maasti Kannadada Aasti which means Maasti is Kannada’s Treasure. He is most renowned for his short stories. He wrote under the pen name Srinivasa. He was honored with the title Rajasevasakta by then Maharaja of Mysore Nalvadi Krishnaraja Wadeyar.

Early life and education

Masti was born in 1891, at Masti in Kolar district of Karnataka in a Tamil speaking Vaishnavaite family. He obtained a master’s degree in Arts in 1914. After joining the Indian Civil Service, he held various positions of responsibility in different parts of Karnataka, rising to the rank of District Commissioner. He retired in 1943.

His Kelavu Sanna Kathegalu (Some Short Stories) was the first noted work in the modern Kannada literature. Maasti also crafted a number poems on various philosophic, aesthetic and social themes. He composed and translated several important plays. Finally, he edited the monthly journal Jeevana (Life) from 1944 to 1965.

A prolific writer, he wrote more than 120 books in Kannada and 17 in English, over seventy years

He passed away in 1986 at the age of 95.

He won the Jnanpith Award in 1983 for his novel Chikkaveera Rajendra. The story was about the last Kodava king. Kodava community was displeased with the negative portrayal of their last king.

Epics

  • Shri Rama Pattabisheka (Coronation of Shri Ram)

Novels

Stories and Anthologies

  • Kelavu Sanna Kathegalu (Some Short Stories)
  • Dombara Chenni
  • Kaagegalu (Crows)
  • Rangana Maduve (Ranga’s Marriage)

Plays

Autobiography

  • Bhava

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The Father of Kannada Short Stories
The Iyengars have been in the forefront of arts, science, & literature. Shown above is the Jnanapeeth awardee Masti Venkatesh Iyengar

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Maasti Venkatesh Iyengar


© Kamat’s Potpourri
Pseudonym: Srinivasa, Maasti
Born: 6 June 1891
Hongenahalli, Malur taluk, Kolar district, Karnataka
Died: 6 June, 1986
Mysore
Occupation: District Commissioner, Professor, Writer
Nationality: India
Genres: Fiction
Literary movement: Navodaya
Debut works: Kelavu Sanna Kategalu
Influences: M.K. Gandhi

Maasti Venkatesh Iyengar (Kannada:ಮಾಸ್ತಿೀ ವೆಂಕಟೇಶ ಐಯಂಗಾರ್) (June 6 1891June 6 1986) was a popular writer in Kannada language. He was the fourth person among seven recipients[1] of Jnanpith Award for Kannada the highest literary honour conferred in India. He was popularly referred to as Maasti Kannadada Aasti which means Maasti is Kannada’s Treasure. He is most renowned for his short stories. He wrote under the pen name Srinivasa. He was honored with the title Rajasevasakta by then Maharaja of Mysore Nalvadi Krishnaraja Wadeyar.

Biography

Early life and education

Masti was born in 1891, at Masti in Kolar district of Karnataka in a Tamil speaking Vaishnavaite family. He obtained a master’s degree in Arts in 1914. After joining the Indian Civil Service, he held various positions of responsibility in different parts of Karnataka, rising to the rank of District Commissioner. He retired in 1943.

His Kelavu Sanna Kathegalu (Some Short Stories) was the first noted work in the modern Kannada literature. Maasti also crafted a number poems on various philosophic, aesthetic and social themes. He composed and translated several important plays. Finally, he edited the monthly journal Jeevana (Life) from 1944 to 1965.

A prolific writer, he wrote more than 120 books in Kannada and 17 in English, over seventy years

He passed away in 1986 at the age of 95.

He won the Jnanpith Award in 1983 for his novel Chikkaveera Rajendra. The story was about the last Kodava king. Kodava community was displeased with the negative portrayal of their last king.

Bibliography

Epics

  • Shri Rama Pattabisheka (Coronation of Shri Ram)

Novels

Stories and Anthologies

  • Kelavu Sanna Kathegalu (Some Short Stories)
  • Dombara Chenni
  • Kaagegalu (Crows)
  • Rangana Maduve (Ranga’s Marriage)

Plays

Autobiography

  • Bhava

Notes

 

  1. ^ Jnanapeeth Awards. Ekavi. Retrieved on 2006-10-31.

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July 22, 2007 Posted by | Dewan Purnaiah, MASTI | 6 Comments

Dewan Purnaiah

Dewan Purnaiah

Yelandur is a taluk of Chamarajanagara district. It is very close to Chamarajanagar city. It is a small town connecting various places in the Chamarajanagar region. This town has a historic and cultural importance in this region.

Yelandur came into prominence under the Cholas. The Cholas were the emperors of the Tamil kingdom. The first known prince of the dynasty to have ruled this region is Singadepa or Devabhupala. He is said to have built the famous Gaurishwara temple of Yelandur at about 1550 A.D. This is a magnificient temple. This temple speaks volumes of the Cholas as great builders. It has a very beautiful main entrance. It went into a decreipt state but was later erected in 1654-55 by his great grandson Muddabhupa.

The Gaurishwara temple�s attractive entrances have no gopura (towers built on the entrance arches). However, the entrances have artistically created fine sculpture embedded into the walls and on pillars. Stone carved themes like Andhakasuravadha (killing of the demon Andhakasura), Shoolabrahma, Bhikshatanamurthy, Bhairava, Kalingamardana, and Dakshinamurthy tell these mythological stories. Narasimha in various manifestations like Dakshinamurthy, Sharabha, Vali and Sugriva can also be observed on these walls and pillars. The four corners and the door side of the mantapa have monolithic stone chains formed by circular stone carved links – each 20 centimetres in diameter. This mahadwara (great door) is therefore locally called as bale (bangle) mantapa, as these links resemble bangles.

Yelandur was later ruled by the Mysore wodeyars. In 1807, Yelandur and others surrounding villages were granted as jahgir (gifted land) to Dewan Purnaiah by Krishnaraja Wodeyar III. Dewan Purnaiah was one of the most revered statesmen in those times in the whole of India (India was an agglomeration of more than 100 princely states in those times and not one nation as it is now). He is credited with making the Wodeyar empire a very strong one. Even now, people benefit from his visionary works. He was born in Yelandur.

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In search of valuable treasure

The discovery of the priceless wealth at Dewan Purnaiah�s bungalow was initiated by the instincts of a Tahsildar.

S TAHSIN AHMED

The year was 1987! I was working as the Tahsildar of Yelandur, which is a small taluk in Mysore district. While going to the taluk office, I would often watch an old two-storeyed building, with locked doors. It had two porticos in front that were supported by ornate pillars. An old somber-looking tree in front of its unpainted and weather-beaten facade gave it an eerie look. This was Dewan Purnaiah�s building.

Purnaiah was the Dewan during the reign of Hyder Ali, Tipu Sultan and even the Wodeyars. He had a jahgir of agricultural lands in Yelandur. In fact, Purnaiah�s bungalow even housed the taluk office and the police station in the past. After these offices were shifted to new buildings, the bungalow was kept locked for nearly 15 long years.

There was a strange belief among the locals that a big black snake with hair on its body guarded Purnaiah�s treasure. Hence even during those 15 years, nobody dared to acquire the heirlooms in the building that belonged to Dewan Purnaiah. In fact, bowls of milk used to be kept in the vicinity of the building with the belief that the snake would drink it in the night.

While attending to routine office work on a bright sunny day on November 4, 1987, I asked the sheristedar for a very old file. He informed that the file was not available and that it could have probably been left back in the old Taluk office, which was housed in Purnaiah�s bungalow. This casual remark made me wonder as to what other things might be left inside the building. The very moment, I decided to discover the treasure hidden inside the building. People warned me of the foreboding evil, which they said may lead to tragic consequences. Undeterred, I moved ahead with a small group of my staff members, who volunteered to join me in this adventure. We walked over to the building and broke open the old, rusted door lock since nobody had its key. The door was pushed open and it made a squeaking noise. Everybody peered inside with wide-open eyes, but it was pitch dark and nothing was visible.

A ray of sunlight that pierced inside from the opposite end revealed the existence of a window. I asked my volunteers to go inside the building and open the window. They looked at each other, but nobody moved. Then I myself walked inside wading through age-old cobwebs.

It was dark inside and the thought of the black snake with hair on its body did send a shiver down my spine. But this was the deciding moment, I said to myself. If I falter, the discovery operation will be aborted. So I mustered courage, walked over to the window, unfastened the old wooden knobs and pushed the shutters open. Bright sunlight immediately lit the place and my staff finally entered the hall without much hesitation.

But the sight was quite disappointing. There were some old, medium-sized, black-coloured metal trunks, which we tried opening in vain. When we finally tried lifting them, its rusted bottom gave way, and gold ornaments started falling one after the other. There were gold necklaces, bangles, silver crowns and other jewellery in more than one trunk. We also discovered a collection of nearly 3000 antique coins in another trunk besides a few gold and silver coins. However, the black snake still remained elusive. By then, it was time for sun set and darkness started pervading the building, making us rely on the petromax lanterns.

While we were thus engrossed inside, the news that the Tahsildar had opened the bungalow spread like wild fire in Yelandur and the villagers flocked to the building. The crowd peered over our shoulders, pushing the staff so that they could get a glimpse of the treasure. Fearing the safety of the find, I had to call the Sub-Inspector of Police. We finally closed the bungalow, locked it and affixed the seal of the Tahsildar, and constables guarded the building throughout the night.
The next morning we continued exploring the bounty inside Purnaiah�s bungalow. In one of the rooms, we found plenty of black cloth manuscripts with neat white writing in Kannada. Each manuscript was about 15 feet in length but was repeatedly folded. These records are believed to contain information about the life and finances of the princely state of Mysore. So we delivered two jeep loads of these manuscripts to the State Arch-ives Department at Mysore, enriching them with enough research material to last for years. But there was not a word of gratitude from their end.

The All India Radio in its national news bulletin reported this event. The news also made it to the next day�s national and local newspapers also.

The news probably interested Dewan Purnaiah�s sixth grandson Raghavendra Rao Purnaiah and his wife Sukanya, who came down to Yelandur from Bangalore. Pleased with the latest developments, they handed over a rare photograph of Dewan Purnaiah’s grandson P N Krishna Murthy, who served as the Dewan of Mysore between 1901 and 1906. The Secretariat manual was prepared during his tenure, which is used even to this day as the bible for the Secretariat staff. I promptly handed over Dewan Krishnamurthy�s photograph to the Archives Department, which they utilised for a book published by them later, without even acknowledging the source of the photograph.

The gold and silver jewellery recovered from Dewan Purnaiah�s bungalow was weighed in the presence of the public and handed over to the State treasury of Yelandur, along with the other items. A few social workers wrote to the Chief Minister requesting that I be honoured with the Rajyothsava Award for the initiative.

Unfortunately, it was not an award that I received but a show-cause notice from the jurisdictional Assistant Commissioner asking me to issue an explanation as to why the bungalow was not opened for the last 15 years, while I had reported as the Tahsildar of Yelandur taluk just two months ago.

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In Karnataka, Dasara is observed as State festival – Nadahabba, because of the celebration of the festival is steered by the Royal Family of Mysore. The royal family of Mysore performs special pooja on the occasion of Dasara. During Dasara, the entire City is gaily decorated and illuminated. The Palace and other important buildings are illuminated. Cultural programmes by famous artists are arranged in the Palace along with Sports, Wrestling, Poet’s meet, Food Festival, Film Festival witnessed by a large number of people.  Dasara Exhibition is arranged in the Doddakere Maidana, by the Karnataka Exhibition Authority, where the public and private sector industries, leading business establishments, State Government departments put up their stalls to promote industrial and corporate business for months.
 
Mysore is the former Capital of the erstwhile Wodeyars and the state of Mysore. Mysore is also known as the City of Palaces. Abode of untold grandeur and glory, where the rich heritage of the Wodeyars is carefully preserved to this day in its magnificent palaces, gardens, broad shady avenues and sacred temples. There is an old world charm about the city that reaches out and leaves no one untouched. Mysore, or Mahishur as it was called in the past, traces its history back to the mythical past, when Goddess Chamundeshwari of Chamundi Hills killed the wicked buffalo-headed demon, Mahishasura.
Tippu was a great scholar and lover of literature. His artistic pursuits were also many and he made rich gifts to the Hindu temples. Tippu Sultan “Tiger of Karnataka” was killed in 1799 A.D., and the Mysore throne was handed back to the Wodeyar’s. The whole of Karnataka came under the control of the British in the beginning of the 19th century. The new state was named as new Mysore and the Maharaja of Mysore was appointed Governor by Independent India. This unified state was renamed as Karnataka on November 1, 1973. Mysore – the former capital of the erstwhile Wodeyars and also of the State of Mysore lost its prominence to Bangalore.
The recorded history of Mysore City, which was a principal town of a district, goes back to 10th century AD. After witnessing many vicissitudes and remaining for centuries the headquarters of a small principality, Mysore, for well nigh two centuries lost out to Srirangapatna as a city of any consequence. It was Raja Wodeyar who, in 1610, set up headquarters at Srirangapatna after asserting his independence from the Vijayanagar viceroy. The centre of gravity shifted back to Mysore with the court starting to function once again and the population remigrating to it from Srirangapatna. It was administered under the British Commission from 1831 to 1881 after a spell of governance under the great Dewan Purnaiah, who survived the Hyder-Tippu era.
The city really started growing into its present form after the Rendition of 1881 when the throne was restored to Chamarajendra Wodeyar, the scion of the royal family, who ruled the State for 13 years till his death in 1894. Chamarajendra Wodeyar and later the Maharani Regent commissioned a number of important buildings, besides putting some order in the City’s by now visible growth. But the credit for its blossoming into the city that we are familiar with goes to the long spell of rule of Krishnaraja Wodeyar, the Saint King and prince among builders, the Silver Jubilee of whose reign was celebrated in 1927. The foundation of the City’s spacious and excellently planned layouts had already been laid during the administration of Dewans Seshadri Iyer and M. Visveswaraya.  With the Silver Jubilee Spirit of the celebrations of Krishnaraja Wodeyar’s rule, the city invested with much of its remarkable aesthetics – new parks and boulevards and some noteworthy additions to its architectural scene. Sir Mirza Ismail (Dewan from 1926 to 1941), a great aesthete himself, did much to enhance the City’s aesthetics.  Mysore inspite of being ruled by different Rulers and Kingdoms for ages, still retains its old charm and stately beauty. There are many ‘not-to-be-missed’ sights in Mysore like the magnificent Mysore Palace, Sri Jayachamarajendra Art Gallery, St. Philomena’s Church, KRS Brindavan Gardens.

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July 15, 2007 Posted by | Dewan Purnaiah, EKAVI BELGAUM | 46 Comments

Aluru Venkata Rao Who Saved Kannada

ಆಲೂರು ಅವರ ಬಗ್ಗೆ ಏನು ಹೇಳುವುದು ?

ನಮ್ಮ ಚರಿತ್ರೆಯಲ್ಲಿ ಇವರ ಬಗ್ಗೆ ಪಾಠ ಇರದೇ ನಮಗೆ

ಬೇಡದ ಫ್ರೆಂಚ್ ಕ್ರಾಂತಿ, ಟರ್ಕ , ಚೆಂಗೇಸ್ ಖಾನ್ ವರಾತ ಕೇಳುತ್ತೆವೆ.

ಇವರ ಭಾವಚಿತ್ರ ನಮ್ಮ ಪ್ರತಿಯೊಬ್ಬ ಕನ್ನಡಿಗನ ಮನೆಯಲ್ಲಿ ಇರಬೇಕು, ಮತ್ತು

ನಮ್ಮ ಮುಂದಿನ ಪೀಳಿಗೆಗೆ ಇವರ “ಕರ್ನಾಟಕದ ಗತ ವೈಭವ” ಓದಿಸಬೇಕು.

ಒಳ್ಳೆಯು ವಿಷಯವನ್ನು ಹಾಕಿರುವದಕ್ಕೆ ನಿಮಗೆ ಧನ್ಯವಾದಗಳು.

PRAVEEN

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kannaDa kulapurOhita aalooru venkaTa raayara bagge maatanaaDuvude hemmeya vishaya.
Karnatakada ekeekaranadalli ee mahaanubhaavaradu mahattaravaada paarta
Jai kannadaambe

Amaranath

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Aluru Venkata Rao

Aluru Venkata Rao(12th July 1880 – 25th Feb 1964) was one of the most eminent leaders of the the Karnataka Ekikarana movement. He had a very strong impact on the Ekikarana movement which was fighting for a separate state encompassing all Kannada speaking areas of Mysore, Bombay Presidency and Nizam’s Hyderabad. Even though the first strains of this movement had started as early as in 1856 and the Karnataka Vidyavardhaka Sangha had been established in 1890, the movement took a dramatic turn with the arrival of Aluru Venkata Rao on the scene. The single most important event that spurred the movement into a frenzy was the publishing of Aluru’s magnum opus, Karnataka Gatha Vaibhava in 1912. Such was the impact of his work on the masses that he came to be known as the Kannada Kula Purohita or the ‘High priest of the Kannada kula(family) ‘

Karnataka Gatha Vaibhava

Karnataka Gatha Vaibhava literally means The glory that was Karnataka!. It was a book that recounted in great detail the glorious history that had been Karnataka’s until the Marathas, Nizam and the British took over. The book created tremendous impact on the young and old alike. The movement soon caught the imagination of the public and people started rallying around the Ekikarana movement and the movement picked up momentum.

Alur Venkata Rao remembered

dharwad: “what lokamanya tilak did for maharashtra, alur venkata rao did for karnataka,” stated former chairman of karnataka sahitya academy giraddi govindraj. speaking at the 38th death anniversary of alur venkata rao at sadhanakeri in dharwad, he said the contributions of venkat rao to the unification of karnataka were remarkable. his vision and mission resulted in unification of karnataka besides in the rise of karnataka sahitya parishat and karnataka vidyavardhaka sangha. he called upon younger generation to emulate the ideals of alur. writer b.r. wadappi presided. dr shrinivas ritti also spoke.

Alur Venkat Rao (1880 – 1964)

Alur Venkata Rao (a.k.a Alur Venkatrao) is referred to as Karnatakakulapurohita or the high-priest of Karnataka Community. He is singularly responsible for creating awareness among the people about Karnataka’s greatness in the political and cultural field in the past. It is worthwhile to have a glance of sociopolitical scene of Karnataka when Aulr Venkat Rao was born in late 19th century.

At the time the land of Kannadigas was divided into five parts.

  1. Maharaja’s Mysore province of 9 districts formed strong and single political entity.

  2. Two districts of Bellary and South Kanara came under Madras Presidency.

  3. Three districts of Bidar, Gulburga and Raichur came under Nizam of Hyderabad’s dominion.

  4. Coorg or Kodagu formed different centrally administered district.

  5. The four districts of Dharwad, North Kanara, Bijapur and Belgaum formed part of Bombay Presidency, usually identified as North Karnataka.

This North Karnaka was referred to as `Southern Maratha Country’ when Alur Venkat Rao was born. So great was the Marathi influence in this area that the youngsters attended Marthi High Schools, and for higher or college education they had to proceed to Pune. Kannada remained a spoken language and at the most, medium of instruction at primary level in villages and towns. Mr. Venkat Rao was born in Bijapur in 1880 in a well-to-do family of landlords. His father Bhim Rao was a Shirastedar. Shirastedar was an important Accounts Official at the Taluka level under British rule. Bhim Rao and Venkat Rao’s mother Bhagirathibai were of pious and charitable nature. There were students of Varanna (weekly free food) the year round, besides relatives who stayed with them for schooling and other facilities in the big Alur household. Alur Venkat Rao attended primary school in different small towns where his father was transferred and he passed Matriculation examination (school graduation) from Dharwar in 1897. He had acquired good fluency in Marathi, Sanskrit and English by then. But his firist love was Kannada. He sadly remembers that there were no good books, journals or periodicals in Kannada at that time. He attended Fergusson College in Pune and completed his B.A. and L.L.B. (law) degrees by 1905. His student years in Pune were memorable. The country was witnessing early nationalism in different forms and phases. Lokamanya Tilak was the prominent leader who shaped young minds, by arranging Shivaji Utsav and Ganapati Utsav and establishing national schools. Veer Savarkar and Senapati Bapat were Alur’s contemporaries in college. Partition of Bengal as envisaged by the Vice Roy Lord Curzon had led to a ‘nation wide’ agitation. It kindled latent nationalism among educated youngsters in several ways. Alur returned to Dharwad determined to serve the country, in the ways that suited him He stared as a pleader, one of the most coveted posts in those days which brought name and fame with minimum work according to him. But soon call of mother Karnataka snatched him away from all material attractions.

Karanatakatva mission of his life

A chance visit to Anegundi and vast ruins of Hampi provided Alur a clear vision about his future course of action. The greatness of Vijayanagara empire and glory of Kannada valour which spread beyond Maharashtra in earlier age, prompted him to awaken Kannada people of his region, who were still wollowing in the ‘hangover’ of Peshwai Maratha rule.

Whereas Bengalis could not tolerate one division of their motherland, how could Kannadigas afford to be so apathetic to their mother land being divided into five zones? This was the painful reflection of young Alur. He decided to write a book that could awaken his sleepy people. ‘Karnataka Gatavaibhava’ was the result. It is a master piece bringing out contribution of all Karnataka dynasties enriching Indian culture by conquests, constructing great temples and monuments promoting trade and commerce, encouraging learning, promoting literature etc. It took 13 years to collect material from inscriptions, coins, and old manuscripts to write this book which created history.

His ‘Karnataka Gatavaibhava’ (Past glory of Karnataka) completes ninety years (1917), this year (2007).

Alur continued writing books, editing journals establishing schools, founding research centres and libraries, touring most of the time and giving lectures. He met like-minded people scattered in all the five areas specified earlier. In between he was imprisoned and his license to practice as pleader was cancelled. This made Alur devote himself completely for unification of Karnataka.

Finally Alur Venkata Rao succeeded. Fifty years of his mission bore fruit. Kannada speaking land became one under the name of Mysore State (1956). It took another 18 years to have its rightful name of Karnataka (1974). It only shows how many hurdles Alur had to cross in olden days of British rule, when only change in rightful name took nearly two decades in Independent India!

 

K.L. Kamat/Kamat’s Potpourri
Those Who Saved Kannada
Those Who Saved Kannada
(L to R) Nadiger, G.B. Joshi, K.V. Iyer, Alur Venkata Rao, V.B.Naik , Karna

Alur wrote twelve books and eight booklets. He encouraged N.S. Rajpurohit, D.R. Bendre, Shantakavi, Pandit Taranath, Hardekar Manjappa etc., all stalwarts in their fields, to write. He himself published their early books and distributed them.

He was an active member in all literary activities outside North Karnataka. He mobilized funds and popular support in founding Kannada Sahitya Parishat, the august the literary body in 1915. He was vice president and real force behind Vijayanagara sixth-centenary celebrations in Hampi when all living great South Indian historians, researchers, archeologists and writers were brought on a single platform in 1936.

He was elected as the President of 16th all Karnataka literary meet, “Sahitya Sammelan”held in Mysore 1930. He spent his last years of life writing books on Madhwa philosophy and Bhagavadgita for commoners leading a sage’s life. He died in 1964.

Dharwad city is full of memorials, in founding of which Alur had a hand. Karnatak College and University, Shantesha library and Vidyavadhak Sangh. Itihasa Samsodhak Mandal, and Sadhankeri, which he himself named and lived in.

Alur’s Nanna Jeevana Smritigulu (“Memories of my life”) was serialized many years ago in “Jayakarnataka” monthly which he had started and later handed over to others. Late G.B. Joshi, doyen among Indian publishers, brought them in a book form in 1974 when Mysore state became Karnataka. It is a tribute and fulfillment to Alur’s efforts of half a century. The book contains many poignant memories of men and incidents of freedom struggle, and Alur’s unique role in making the struggle for Karnatakakatva, as part of National movement.

 

 

 

July 14, 2007 Posted by | EKAVI COORG-KODAGU, History of Karnataka | 12 Comments

ABBAKKA RANI : THE UNSUNG WARRIOR QUEEN

ABBAKKA RANI : THE UNSUNG WARRIOR QUEEN

 

“Abbakka rode the horse stately and worked deep into the night dispensing justice. She is the last known person to have Agnivana (fire arrow).”

 

The Arabian Sea water that splashes the shores of Ullal near Mangalore in Karnataka could tell you the story of Abbakka Rani, locally known as Abbakka Mahadevi. Such is her personality in the region that she has become a folk legend. Abbakka Rani is one of the earliest freedom fighters of India who resisted the Portuguese.The regions where Abbakka was queen is known as Tulunadu. Rani Abbakka was queen is known as Tulunadu. Rani Abbakka, though a Queen of a little known small princely state, Ullal, was magnetic woman of indomitable courage and patriotism. While Rani Jhansi has become a symbol of courage, Abbakka, nearly 300 years her predecessor, has been largely forgotten by history. Her furious wars with Portuguese are not well recorded. But whatever is available speaks of a luminous personality of awesome valour and bravery.Sources, such as archival records, travelogues of several Portuguese travelers and historical analysis confirm that there were three Abbakkas: mother and two daughters, who fought against the Portuguese Army between 1530 and 1599.

Though it is the second daughter who was the most courageous, the folklore treats all three Abbakkas as one great Queen and a brilliant personality Abbakka Mahadevi or Rani Abbakka. In this article also she is being treated as a single character – Abbakka Rani.

Ullal fort, the capital of Abbakka’s kingdom, is located just a few kilometers away from the city of Mangalore, on the shores of the Arabian Sea. It is a historical as well as a pilgrim spot because of the beautiful Shiva Temple built by the Queen and a unique natural rock, called the Rudra Rock. The rock appears to change colours every second, as the sweater splashes on it.

According to local legends. Abbakka was an extraordinary child and as she grew up showed signs of being a visionary. there was no equal to her in military science and warfare, mainly in archery and sword fighting. Her father encouraged her in this and after she was well versed in all areas, she was married to a neighbouring local king of Bangher. The marriage did no last long with Abbakka breaking the ties by returning the jewels given by his to her. The husband thus nurtured revenge against Abbakka and later on joined the Portuguese in a treaty, to fight Abbakka.

The Portuguese had made several attempts to capture Ullal, strategically placed. But Abbakka had repulsed each of their attack with sheer courage and ingenuity. The queen’s story is retold from generation to generation through folk songs and yakshagana, the popular folk theatre, In bootaradhana, (which literally means appeasing the possessed, a local ritual dance) the personal in trance narrates the great deeds of Abbakka Mahadevi. Abbakka, dark and good looking, always dressed in simple clothes like a common village woman. She rode the horse stately and worked deep into the night dispensing justice.

According to the folklore, Abbakka is the last known person to have the Agnivana (fire-arrow) in her fight against the Portuguese. Though Abbakka was a Jain by faith her administration was well represented by Hindus and Muslims. Her army too consisted of people from all sects and caste including Moggaveeras, a fisher folk community. The first attack by the Portuguese in south Kanara coast was in 1525, when they destroyed the Mangalore port. Rani Abbakka was alerted by the incident and started preparing herself to protect her kingdom. In 1555, the Portuguese sent Admiral Don Alvaro da Silvereira against the Queen of Ullal Abbakka Devi Chowta who had refused to pay them the tribute. She fought with courage and intelligence and pushed them back.

In 1558 the Portuguese Army perpetrated another wanton cruelty on Mangalore, putting to death a number of men and women, both young and old, plundering a temple, burning ships and finally setting the city itself on fire.Again, in 1567, the Portuguese army attacked Ullal, showering death and destruction. The great Queen Abbakka Devi Chowta (Bucadevi I) resisted it.The same year one general Joao Peixoto was sent by the Portuguese Viceroy Antony Norohna with a fleet of soldiers. He captured the city of Ullal and also entered the royal court. However the Queen escaped and took asylum in a mosque. The same night, she counter-attacked the Portuguese army, with a help of 200 of her soldiers and killed General Peixoto and 70 Portuguese soldiers.The invaders were forced to flee to their ships in disgrace. The Portuguese soldiers who remained in Ullal were dead drunk, in over confidence and were dancing. Taking advantage of this opportunity, about 500 Muslim supporters of Abbakka Rani attacked the Portuguese and killed Admiral Mascarenhas along with the help six thousand Muslim soldiers in 1568, and the foreign army had to leave the Mangalore fort.

In 1569, the Portuguese Army not only regained the Mangalore Fort but also captured Kundapur (Basrur). Abbakka Rani was a source of threat to the Portuguese. They won the confidence of Abbakka’s estranged husband, kind of Bangher and started attacking Ulla. Abbakka Rani fought vigorously.

She formed an alliance in 1570 with Bijapur Sultan Ahmed Nagar and the Zanmorine of Calicut, who where also opposing the Portuguese. Kutty Pokar Markar, a general of the Zamorine fought on behalf of Abbakka and destroyed the Portuguese fort at Mangalore but while returning he was killed by the Portuguese.

Abbakka lost the war as her husband assisted the Portuguese by revealing to them her strategies of warfare, which he was familiar with. She was arrested and jailed. However, the warrior that she was, she was, she revolted in the prison and died as a soldier – fighting.

Though Abbakka has been admired and worshipped in the local folk forms, it is very recently there there have been efforts to honour her memory.

As a result of these efforts the Karnatka Government has erected a statue of the Queen in the city of Bangalore. IGNCA is making a documentary on Abbakka Rani, incorporating the folk myth.

Shri Kailash Kr. Mishra is a Research Fellow, in Janpada Sampada and is involved in the documentary Project on Abbakka.

The author expresses his sincere thanks to Prof. Vasantha Madhava, Prof. Amrut Someshwar, Prof. B.A. Vivek Rai, Dr. Wahab Doddamane, Dr. Nandavar and Shri Bharatadri, for the inputs they gave on Abbakka Rani.

`Rani Abbakka has not been given her due’

Special Correspondent The HINDU

Online edition of India’s National Newspaper
Monday, Jan 09, 2006

Queen’s role in fighting foreign aggressors recalled at utsav

 

 

 

THOKKUTTU (ULLAL): The sixth Veera Rani Abbakka Utsav began here on Sunday with a call to place Rani Abbakka on a par with other nationalist personalities.

Speaking at the inaugural session, well-known writer and Nadoja Award winner Sara Aboobackar said Rani Abbakka was not like other queens who stayed in palaces; she lived amid people and when it came to protection of the independence of her people she fought with all her might and laid down her life.

Ms. Aboobackar said Rani Abbakka was as valiant as Kittur Rani Channamma, but her history was not very well known. Two other queens who were of Rani Abbakka’s stature were Chand Bibi and Razia Sultana, she said.

President of the Dakshina Kannada district Kannada Sahitya Parishat Pradeep Kumar Kalkura regretted that the history of Rani Abbakka had not being documented in a scientific way, and the Government had neglected her role in fighting foreign aggression.

He said a statue of Rani Abbakka should be installed not just in Mangalore but also in Bangalore near the Town Hall. President of the Karnataka State Tulu Sahitya Parishat Seetharama Kulal said the Tulu Academy would set up a fund for taking up research on Rani Abbakka. Mr. Kulal said he had already spoken to the Mangalore City Corporation to name the circle outside the Deputy Commissioner’s office after Rani Abbakka.

Chairman of the Kannada Development Authority B.M. Idinabba said it was not correct to restrict Rani Abbakka’s identity to Tulu Nadu just because she ruled a part of that region. She should be recognised on a national level.

 

 Rani Abbakka
ABBAKKA RANI : THE UNSUNG WARRIOR QUEEN

“Abbakka rode the horse stately and worked deep into the night dispensing justice. She is the last known person to have Agnivana (fire arrow).”

Rani Abbakka, though a Queen of a little known small princely state, Ullal, near Mangalore, in present day Karnataka, was a magnetic woman of indomitable courage and patriotism. While Rani Jhansi has become a symbol of courage, Abbakka, nearly 300 years her predecessor, has been largely forgotten by history. Her furious wars with Portuguese are not well recorded. But whatever is available speaks of a luminous personality of awesome valour and bravery.
Sources, such as archival records, travelogues of several Portuguese travelers and historical analysis confirm that there were three Abbakkas: mother and two daughters, who fought against the Portuguese Army between 1530 and 1599.


Rani Abbakka Statue, Ullal, Karnataka

Though it is the second daughter who was the most courageous, the folklore treats all three Abbakkas as one great Queen and a brilliant personality Abbakka Mahadevi or Rani Abbakka. In this article also she is being treated as a single character – Abbakka Rani.

Ullal fort, the capital of Abbakka’s kingdom, is located just a few kilometers away from the city of Mangalore, on the shores of the Arabian Sea. It is a historical as well as a pilgrim spot because of the beautiful Shiva Temple built by the Queen and a unique natural rock, called the Rudra Rock. The rock appears to change colours every second, as the sweater splashes on it.

According to local legends. Abbakka was an extraordinary child and as she grew up showed
signs of being a visionary. there was no equal to her in military science and warfare, mainly in archery and sword fighting. Her father encouraged her in this and after she was well versed in all areas, she was married to a neighbouring local king of Bangher. The marriage did no last long with Abbakka breaking the ties by returning the jewels given by his to her. The husband thus nurtured revenge against Abbakka and later on joined the Portuguese in a treaty, to fight Abbakka.

The Portuguese had made several attempts to capture Ullal, strategically placed. But Abbakka had repulsed each of their attack with sheer courage and ingenuity. The queen’s story is retold from generation to generation through folk songs and yakshagana, the popular folk theatre, In bootaradhana, (which literally means appeasing the possessed, a local ritual dance) the personal in trance narrates the great deeds of Abbakka Mahadevi. Abbakka, dark and good looking, always dressed in simple clothes like a common village woman. She rode the horse stately and worked deep into the night dispensing justice.

According to the folklore, Abbakka is the last known person to have the Agnivana (fire-arrow) in her fight against the Portuguese. Though Abbakka was a Jain by faith her administration was well represented by Hindus and Muslims. Her army too consisted of people from all sects and caste including Mogaveeras, a fisher folk community. The first attack by the Portuguese in south Kanara coast was in 1525, when they destroyed the Mangalore port. Rani Abbakka was alerted by the incident and started preparing herself to protect her kingdom. In 1555, the Portuguese sent Admiral Don Alvaro da Silvereira against the Queen of Ullal Abbakka Devi Chowta who had refused to pay them the tribute. She fought with courage and intelligence and pushed them back.

In 1558 the Portuguese Army perpetrated another wanton cruelty on Mangalore, putting to death a number of men and women, both young and old, plundering a temple, burning ships and finally setting the city itself on fire.
Again, in 1567, the Portuguese army attacked Ullal, showering death and destruction. The great Queen Abbakka Devi Chowta (Bucadevi I) resisted it.

The same year one general Joao Peixoto was sent by the Portuguese Viceroy Antony Norohna with a fleet of soldiers. He captured the city of Ullal and also entered the royal court. However the Queen escaped and took asylum in a mosque. The same night, she counter-attacked the Portuguese army, with a help of 200 of her soldiers and killed General Peixoto and 70 Portuguese soldiers.

The invaders were forced to flee to their ships in disgrace. The Portuguese soldiers who remained in Ullal were dead drunk, in over confidence and were dancing. Taking advantage of this opportunity, about 500 Muslim supporters of Abbakka Rani attacked the Portuguese and killed Admiral Mascarenhas along with the help six thousand Muslim soldiers in 1568, and the foreign army had to leave the Mangalore fort.

In 1569, the Portuguese Army not only regained the Mangalore Fort but also captured Kundapur (Basrur). Abbakka Rani was a source of threat to the Portuguese. They won the confidence of Abbakka’s estranged husband, kind of Bangher and started attacking Ulla. Abbakka Rani fought vigorously.

She formed an alliance in 1570 with Bijapur Sultan Ahmed Nagar and the Zanmorine of Calicut, who where also opposing the Portuguese. Kutty Pokar Markar, a general of the Zamorine fought on behalf of Abbakka and destroyed the Portuguese fort at Mangalore but while returning he was killed by the Portuguese.

Abbakka lost the war as her husband assisted the Portuguese by revealing to them her strategies of warfare, which he was familiar with. She was arrested and jailed. However, the warrior that she was, she was, she revolted in the prison and died as a soldier – fighting.
Though Abbakka has been admired and worshipped in the local folk forms, it is very recently there there have been efforts to honour her memory.

July 12, 2007 Posted by | EKAVI COORG-KODAGU, History of Karnataka | 4 Comments

Basaveshwara

Basaveshwara

http://culturalindia.org/basavanna.asp

Twelfth century of Karnataka is noted for its socioeconomic, cultural and literary revolution. It was called a total revolution which brought in a sea-change in the life of Karnataka. A rare responsibility of leading that revolution fell on the broad and able shoulders of Basavanna. It was not an accident but opportunity, the time had offered to him. Basavanna was known for his humility coupled with introspection and self criticism. The education he had, made him rich not only in Sanskrit and Kannada literatures but also in religions. He was also gifted with a rare quality of creativity and subtle sensitivity. His studious nature with his subtle sensitivity helped him to exploit the rich treasures of both Sanskrit and Kannada literature. He was compassionate and his love of life helped his creative genius to bloom. His creative personality was sensitive to the problems of the Society. As he was destined to be a leader, his creative genius, scholarship and the social status did not make him arrogant. The compassionate heart he had made him become humble and mellowed his personality.

The social and religious conditions of the society and the agony of the oppressed people inspired his creative genius. And he waged a war against untouchability, caste system and inequalities between men and women on the basis of human values.

Like a prophet he visualised a dream of creating a new society. This vision of a new society was based on equality and human dignity. This attracted the imaginations of Mahadeva of Kashmir, Shankara Deva of Afghanisthan, Allamaprabhu of Balligave, Adayya of Sowrashtra, Siddarama of Sholapur and others. They were irresistably drawn towards this visionary of Karnataka. The discussion he had with these people related to the ways and means of probing the secrets of life and exploring the possibilities of establishing a new set of human values. It is here that the creative genius of many began to bloom.

His words were true and warm with love. They had the glow of a new dream. And the people flocked arround him to listen to his words of lore.

What was thrilling about this was that there were washermen, fishermen, cobblers, barbers, tax collectors, doctors, wood cutters, carpenters, blacksmiths, priests and others who belonged to the different stratas of society. Nowhere in the history of literature, we come across with such a rare range of men and women writing Vachanas which had given expression to their dreams of a new society. The creative atmosphere generated by Basavanna inspired even the so called common men like Machaiah, Chowdaiah, Kalavve, Satyakka, Maraiah, Sankavve, Kalakethaiah, Masanaiah, Masanamma, Mahadevi, Akkamma and others. They wrote Vachanas also apart from taking active part in the revolution. Compassionate Basavanna was blessed with simplicity and humility. His scholarship and creative abilities were astonishing. In fact it is rare to find a Vachanakara who does not respect and remember Basavanna in his/her Vachanas.

Basavanna’s achievements are multi-faceted. He is the founder of Vachana tradition which influenced the trends in Kannada literature. Kayaka Siddhanta which was cristalised under his dynamic leadership, even to this day, is a great economic theory based on ethics. The revolutionary ideas of Basavanna which inspired intercaste marriage in the 12th century itself is an idea which can help humanity in eradicating not only untouchability but also the ugly caste system.

Basavanna, Prime Minister of Emperor Bijjala of 12th Century, was a great mystic, treasurer of Lord’s love, social reformer, visionary, rationalist, socialist, advocate of non-violence, promoter of the cause of downtrodden and women, trend setter in Kannada literature, upholder of dignity of labour, and crusader against untouchability and superstition. He declared, ‘Work is bliss’. He struggled to establish a classless and casteless society based on spiritual and moral values. He endeavoured to establish democracy in religion, society and moral values. His multi-dimensional personality is unparalleled in the entire history of the world. He is the Light of the Universe.

Birth :

Basavesvara was born around the year 1131 A.D., on Vaishakha Shuddha Trutiya, the nakshatra being Rohini. Madiraja and Madalambe are the parents of Basaveshwara. They were the devotees of Nandisvara at Bagewadi. Gangambike, the daughter of Baladeva, was married to Basavesvara. Basavesvara by birth was a genuine devotee and a seeker after truth. It was in Kudala Sangama that Basavesvara’s inner self reached realization in full.

Lore of the Saiva Saints like Jedara Dasimayya, Sankara Dasimayya, Revanasiddhesvara, Sakalesa Madarasa and Kondaguli Kesiraja, Nayanars of Tamilnad seem to have impressed the mind of Basavesvara considerably. Such of the Saints as were worshipping God, without any ostentation, submitting themselves to His will, could easily appeal to Sri Basavesvara because he was a kindred soul.

Work is Worship :

Basavesvara left Kudala Sangama around the year 1152 A.D. Basavesvara first joined Bijjala’s office as a clerk. His sharp intellect very soon drew the attention of the higher officers like Soddala Bacarasa and Bhandari Siddharasa at Mangalawada.

When the senior accountants committed a grave mistake in the accounts, Basavesvara would point out the same to the great joy and surprise of Bhandari Siddarasa who took him to Bijjala and got him appointed as a clerk on a salary of 101 honnes per year.

Very soon, Bhandari position was also offered to Basavesvara as Siddharasa died without an heir, and Basavesvara was found to be the most appropriate choice.

Basavesvara became the Minister to King Bijjala in 1162. Basavesvara’s life at Kalyana since 1154 was most eventful. He wanted to establish a new religion which would elevate the people to heavenly felicity here and in this world itself.

Basava Matha :

Fundamental principles of religion, philosophy and society were discovered and the great Vachana literature took its final shape. Basavesvara was now not only a minister but a central figure and a leader of a great socio-religious movement. As a devotee of high order, as a leader of great movement, Basavesvara was in the heart of the people. The real Bhakti itself was transformed as Mukti. He also established Anubhavamantapa as a symbol of new religion which attracted saints from such far off places like Kashmir, Banaras etc.

The social revolution, however, is the hall-mark of this great movement. The cardinal principles for which Basavesvara stood were of equality, liberty and fraternity. He would never accept any hierarchy in society. To him all were equal irrespective of caste, creed, occupation etc.

Basavesvara attained union with Kudala Sangamesvara in 1167 A.D.

July 1, 2007 Posted by | EKAVI COORG-KODAGU, History of Karnataka | 10 Comments

HAMPI VIDEO

http://home.casema.nl/india.2005/ppa1.html?mxmedia/Hampi.wmv

Hampi
video Hampi

http://home.casema.nl/india.2005/index.html

November 5, 2006 Posted by | EKAVI COORG-KODAGU, History of Karnataka | Leave a comment

Hampi and Vijayanagar: ” If dreams were made out of stone, it would be Hampi”

Hampi and Vijayanagar

” If dreams were made out of stone, it would be Hampi”  http://www.karnataka.com/tourism/hampi/

Saint Vidyaranya established the seat of Vijayanagara empire in 1336 A.D, with the help of his devotee disciples Hakka and Bukka. The empire later became famous for its support towards renovation/reconstruction of temples through out India. It also became renowned for re-establishment of Indian culture, its support for music, art and literature. With the prime purpose of caring for the people and their welfare, this empire stretched physically covering Karnataka, Andhra and Maharashtra and became a by-word for golden rule.

HAMPI, the seat of the famed VIJAYANAGARA empire was the capital of the largest empire in post-mogul India, covering several states. The empire reigned supreme under Krishnadevaraya, the Emperor. The Vijayanagara empire stretched over at least three states – Karnataka, Maharashtra, and Andhra Pradesh. The destruction of Vijayanagar by marauding Moghul invaders was sudden, shocking and absolute. They reduced the city to ruins amid scenes of savage massacre and horrors beggaring description.

Although in ruins today, this capital city once boasted riches known far beyond the shores of India. The ruins of Hampi of the 14th Century lies scattered in about 26 sq. km area, amidst giant boulders and vegetation. Protected by the tempestuous river Tungabhadra in the north and rocky granite ridges on the other three sides, the ruins silently narrate the story of grandeur splendor and fabulous wealth. The splendid remains of palaces and gateways of the broken city tells a tale of men infinite talent and power of creativity together with his capacity for senseless destruction.

Hampi Strewn over a large area (about nine square miles) the ruins at Hampi offers to the tourist a remainder of the greatest land in the whole world. Every rock, every path and every monument at Hampi speak the same language; a language of glory and beauty. In March 2002, the Government of India has announced that Hampi would be developed as an international destination centre. The State Govt will constitute a Hampi World Heritage Area Management Authority for integrated development and conservation of Hampi.

Hampi is a World Heritage Centre

Hospet is the main town providing the getaway for Hampi. In April 2002, Karnataka officially set up the Hampi World Heritage Area Management Authority with wide-ranging powers, as well as a State Level Advisory Committee.

Local Sights

Most of the ruins are along the road leading from Kamalapura to Hampi.Three kms down the road, on a commanding site, stands the temple of Malyavanta Raghunathaswamy.It is built in the Dravidian style. Strange-looking fishes and marine monsters carved along its outer walls are worth noticing.

The Hampi Bazaar, 35 yards wide and nearly 800 yards long was known to be a “very beautiful street with very beautiful houses”.

The Virupaksha Temple rises majestically at the western end of the famous Hampi Bazaar. The temple has a 120 feet tall tower on its eastern entrance. The temple contains the shrines of Shiva, Pampa and Bhuvaneswari.Parts of this temple are older than the Vijayanagar kingdom itself. The work of this style dates back to the 11th or 12th century.

Nearby is the 6.7m tall monolith of Ugra Narasimha. An inscription nearby states that it was hewn from a single boulder in 1528 during the reign of Krishnadeva Raya.

Vithala Temple Complex
The most splendid monument of Hampi is undoubtedly the Vithala Temple Complex with its 56 musical pillars.

Stone Charriot To the east of the hall is the famous Stone Chariot with stone wheels that actually revolve. In front of the shrine stands the great mantapa. Resting on a richly sculpted basement, its roof is supported by huge pillars of granite, about 15 feet in height, each consisting of a central pillar surrounded by detached shafts, all cut from one single block of stone. Several of the carved pillars were attacked with such fury that they are hardly more than shapeless blocks of stones and a large portion of the central part has been destroyed utterly.

Nearby is the ‘Purandra Dasara Mantapa’ which has been also declared a protected monument.

House of Victory.
It was built when Krishnadeva Raya came back from his victorious expedition against the King of Orissa. The spaces between the rows of the plinth-mouldings here are most elaborately and elegantly carved. The kings of Vijayanagar used to sit on a grand throne in the House of Victory and witness the nine-day Dasara festival.

Westwards from the House of Victory, leading through two ruined gates, the path leads to the Hazara Ramaswami temple. This temple is believed to have been the private place of worship of the royal family. The chief attraction of the temple is the series of scenes from the Ramayana carved on two of the inside walls of the mantapa. The genesis of the place known today as Hampi dates back to the age of the Hindu epic Ramayana when it was the site of Kishkinda, a monkey kingdom.

King’s Balance
Hampi is also full of surprises: like the King’s Balance where kings were weighed against grain, gold or money which was then distributed to the poor, the Queen’s Bath, a swimming pool, 50 ft.long and 6 ft.deep, with its arched corridors, projecting balconies and lotus-shaped fountains that once sprouted perfumed water, the two-storeyed
Hampi
  • Lotus Mahal: shaped like a lotus flower from top, this two-story structure has beautiful arc ways set in geometric regularity. It was an air-cooled summer palace of the queen.
  • Elephant Stables: This huge stable, a beautiful example of Hindu-Muslim style of architecture, housed about 11 elephants in separate compartments.
  • Pushkarini Tank
  • Mahanavami Dibba: The foundation of a lion story wooden structure from which the royalty viewed Hampi with pomp, colour and revelry during the Mahanadu festival. This platform has beautiful carvings.
  • Mustard Ganesh: This is a 9 feet tall single stone statue which is also known as Sasivikalu Ganesha.
  • Noblemen’s Palace: This place was recently discovered and they suspect this was for aristocrats and high-ranking officials.

Daroji Bear Sanctuary is very near Hampi. Though the sanctuary is relatively new, which began in 1994 in the eastern plains of Karnataka, it has proved to be a suitable habitat for the Indian Sloth Bears in a span of few years.Local Festivals: The Vijayanagar Festival organized by the Government of Karnataka in December recreates the grandeur of the bygone era.

Essentials

How to get there

  • Air
    1. The nearest airstrip at Tornagallu in Sandur Taluk which is 32 kms. from Hospet. Bangalore based air-charter operator, Taneja Aerospace and Aviation Ltd (TAAL), has launched sightseeing charter flights to Hampi and Mysore in Oct 2002. Contact Anjan Rao at 98440-27699 for further details.
    2. The second nearest airport is Bellary(74 kms)
    3. Other convenient airports are at Belgaum (190 kms) and Bangalore(353 kms).
  • Rail: Hospet is the nearest rail head (13 kms). Hospet is linked by rail to Bangalore, Bijapur,Hubli and Guntakal.
  • Road: Hampi is 350 kms from Bangalore. KSRTC Buses ply regularly from Hospet.

Best time to visit: October to March

Where to Stay
You could use Hospet as your base to visit Hampi.

  • Hotel Mayura Vijayanagar, Thungabadhra Dam Hospet, Tel: +91-8394-48270
  • Hotel Priyadarshini, Station Road, Hospet, Tel: +91-8394-48838.
  • Hotel Malligi, Hospet-Bellary Road.
  • Hotel Mayura Bhuvaneswri, Kamalapur, Hampi. Tel: +91-8394-51374
  • KSTDC Cottages.Tel: +91-8394-8108

If you need any assistance with booking in any hotel in Karnataka or India in general click here

Also see

November 5, 2006 Posted by | EKAVI COORG-KODAGU, History of Karnataka | 1 Comment

History of Kannada Literature

History of the Kannada Literature – I

http://www.kamat.com/kalranga/kar/literature/history1.htm

 

by Dr. (Mrs) Jyotsna Kamat
First Online: May 23,2000
Last updated on : November 01,2006

Kannada is the language predominant in the state of Karnataka in India.  In this special feature at Kamat’s Potpourri, Dr. Kamat who is an authority on medieval and ancient Kannada literature,  traces the history of the Kannada Language. The first of the series covers the earliest texts and determines the origins. She then covers the great Jain and Veerashaiva works. – Ed.
History of Kannada Literature
Early History | Jaina Works | Medieval Kannada
Vachana LiteratureDasa Sahitya | Epics | Modern Kannada

Early History

Perhaps being the oldest language next to Sanskrit, Prakrit, and Tamil, Kannada country and language have a rich heritage. ‘Kavirajamarga’ () of king Nripatunga (9th century A.D.) is believed to be the earliest literary work in Kannada. It is a treatise on poetics or a guide to poets indicating that Kannada was a fully developed literary language when Kavirajamarga  was composed. It refers to earlier linguists and poets whose works are not forthcoming. But from epigraphical evidence it can be surmised  that the spoken Kannada language evolved much earlier than the Halmidi inscription (c. 450 A.D. ). Belonging to the Prto-Dravidian group it has close affinity with the Tamil language, prevalent now in the neighboring Tamil Nadu. But the language of the Halmidi inscription is highly Sanskritized.


A Banavasi Inscription in Old Kannada

By the 10th century Kannada had its greatest ancient poets like Pampa (born 902 A.D.), Ranna ( born 949 A.D.) and special prose work like Waddaradhane () (c. 930 A.D.) indicating that classical Kannada literature had fully evolved at least one or two centuries earlier, back to ‘Kavirajamarga’. But since none of the earlier works have survived, we have to stick to the established norm that written Kannada came into vogue by the 5th century A.D.

Three Phases

For the sake of the convenient study of  Kannada language and literature, the pundits have divided the development of Kannada language into three phases; The  Old Kannada Phase, The Middle Kannada Phase, and The Modern Kannada Phase.

The verse-form being the most popular all religious texts, scientific treaties like elephant love, horse love, or science of rains, mathematic, poetic, and literature works were composed only in verse- form. India has had oral system of education through the ages and the verse form fit this system very well. The subjects were thought through chanting and reciting and great stress was laid on memorizing, oral reproduction, and application. The verse-form helped to recite easier and to memorize better!

Most of the works in literature and secular sciences mentioned in reference books like Kavirajamarga are still not to be traced. But works of later centuries mention now extinct works on various topics. Thus, Chudamani (a 96,000 verse-measures), a commentary on logic ( Tatwarthamahashastra) by Tambulacharya belonged to the 7th century. Naturally, no shastra (science) treatise could be written so voluminously unless the language in vogue is not fully developed. Epigraphs prove the antiquity of the Kannada language.

The students of Kannada language are familiar with the eulogy of Kappe Arabhatta, a hero remembered as Kaliyuga Vipartitan.

Good to the good, sweet to the sweet,
This exceptional man of Kaliyuga
Is a veritable Madhava himself (to the distressed).

This rock stone inscription of  Badami in archaic Kannada letters is ascribed to the 7th century. The three liner Tripadi  ( which by itself is as old as the Gayatri Mantram )  type of literature was later popularized by the poet  Sarvajna in his ‘Vachanas‘.

November 2, 2006 Posted by | EKAVI COORG-KODAGU, History of Karnataka | Leave a comment

History of Karnataka State [formerly Mysore State]

A Brief History of Karnataka

 

 

Source: http://www.kamat.com/kalranga/kar/history.htm

Prehistoric and Early History

A number of stone age and Paleolithic artifacts have been found in present-day Karnataka, and we can infer that this area of Deccan Plateau has been habitated by the mankind from pre-historic times. 

In the early historical period, Karnataka formed a part of the Mauryan empire under emperor Ashoka, which fact is attested to by the presence of ten Ashokan edicts at places such as Maski, Koppaii, Brahmagiri, Siddapura, Jatingarameshwara, Nittur and Udegolam.

After the Mauryas, this land came under the rule of the Satavahanas (a.k.a. Shatavanahanas), who ruled for about four hundred and fifty years (c. 50 B.C. to 250 A.D.). A large number of archaeological sites, distributed over the whole of Karnataka, have yielded a painted pottery popularly known as russet-coated-pottery and identified with the Satavahana period. This period witnessed nourishing trade contacts with the far-away Roman empire. A number of Roman coins have been found in Karnataka, as well as gold coins of the early Roman emperors and later Byzantine rulers.


A Roman Coin found at Banavasi

The Kadambas succeeded the Satavahanas in this region, who wrested from the Pallavas of Kanchi additional areas, and established the Kadamba kingdom, with its capital at Banavasi in North Kanara district. Their rule extended for two hundred years (4th to 6th Century A.D.). Even after the disintegration of the Kadamba empire, this dynasty survived to govern as the Mahamandaleshwaras, with their capitals at Goa, Hangal and Chandavara. The counterpart of the Kadambas in southern Karnataka were the Gangas, who ruled for nearly seven hundred years, with their capital at Talkad. 

Medieval Period

The emergence of the Badami Chalukyas in the region initiated a brilliant epoch in the history of Karnataka. With their capital at Badami, they ruled for a period of nearly three centuries, from the sixth century A.D. onwards. Famous rulers of this dynasty include Pulakeshi-I, who fortified Badami and performed the Ashvamedha sacrifice, Pulakeshi-II, who defeated Harsha Vardhana (the emperor of Kanoj), and finally Vikramaditya-II, who defeated the Pallava king of Kanchi three times. These rulers made outstanding contributions to art and literature of Karnataka. Similarly, the Rashtrakootas of Malkhed, who ruled from about  753 A.D. to 973 A.D. over parts of what is now called Karnataka, contributed significantly to the culture. Dhruva (780-794), Govinda-III (793-814), Amogha Varsha Nripatunga-I (814-878) and Krishna-III (939-966) are the great monarchs of this dynasty. The most noteworthy contribution of this dynasty is the magnificient Kailash temple at Ellora.

The Chalukyas, who were eclipsed during the glorious days of the Rashtrakootas, reemerged under Tallapa for nearly two centuries later, with their capital at Kalyana and are referred to as the Chalukyas of Kalyan. The ablest ruler of this dynasty was Vikramaditya-VI, the celebrated founder of the Chalukya Vikramaditya era, who ruled for fifty years. It is the Chalukyas of Kalyana who started a new trend in the art of temple building, using a softer stone medium, which for the first time borrowed heavily from the intricate and exuberant wood-craft prevalent at the time. This new style was further improved by the Hoysalas in southern Karnataka. The Katahuri kings replaced the Chalukyas and continued to rule with Kalyani as their capital. Billala was the most important king of this line, whose minister was the great socio-religious reformer Basaveshwara .

Contemporaneous to the Kalyani Chalukyas and Kalachuris, in the southern part of Karnataka the Hoysalas held sway with their capital at Dorasamudra (Halebidu). Vishnuvardhana and Ballala-III are two illustrious rulers of this dynasty. The most notable contribution of this dynasty was the construction of a series of more than three hundred highly ornate temples, in the Hoysala style very typical of this time.

The founding of the Vijayanagara empire in the 14th century A.D. marked the culmination of the achievements of the people of south India, besides being a great cultural renaissance. The two centuries, during which this dynasty ruled the whole of South India, witnessed not only a great flowering in all the fields of art and literature but also a stout defense of its cultural heritage against external invaders. The most illustrious name of this dynasty is that of Krishnadevaraya, a Tuluva (Tulu-speaker) from South Kanara, whose reign marked the grand climax in the development of the empire, and the achievement of the objectives for which it was actually founded.

 

Religious History of Karnataka

The four primary religious faiths of Karnataka have been Shaivism (followers of Shiva), Vaishnavism (followers of Vishnu and his avatars), Buddhism, and Jainism. Prominent saints Shankaracharya, and Ramanujacahrya lived  in Karnataka for a long time and established deep roots. Saints Madhwacharya and Basaveshwara were indeed born in Karnataka and have left a lasting impact.

The subsequent practitioners of the Bhakti movement in Karnataka enriched the Kannada language and south Indian music. For a detailed study of Vachana literature and Dasa literature, please see Dr. Jyotsna Kamat’s series on History of Kannada Language.

 

Karnataka During 18th and 19th Centuries

The cultural leadership established by the Vijayanagar kings continued to flourish under the Nayakas of Keladi and the Wodeyars of Mysore in the south, while the area north of the Tungabhadra river came under the sway of the Bahamani kings. Hyder Ali united small principalities under the throne of Mysore. Most of the northern parts later fell into the hands of the Marathas. Western parts were integrated by the British into the Bombay Presidency and but for Mysore, the southern parts came under the Madras Presidency and under the British Raj. The British built  military bases (Cantonments)  in Bangalore, Belgaum, and Bellary.

K.L. Kamat/Kamat’s Potpourri
Hyder Ali and Tippu Sultan
Hyder Ali and Tippu Sultan
Young Tippu (squatting on the right) consults with his father Hyder Ali.
Detail from a Wall mural in Sibi.

See Also: Tippu Sultan, Mummadi Krishnaraja Wodeyar, Dewan Purnaiah

 

Unification as a State and Kannada Renaissance

The period between 1905 to 1920 can be described as the period of unification of Karnataka. On one hand, the leaders fought for India’s freedom and on the other, they dreamt of a building a united Karnataka state, that had since been broken into twenty different segments [2].

K.L. Kamat/Kamat’s Potpourri
Those Who Saved Kannada
Those Who Saved Kannada
(L to R) Nadiger, G.B. Joshi, K.V. Iyer, Alur Venkata Rao, ? , Karna

After 1924, when the Congress supported forming of the state of Karnataka, the unification movement got a big boost. However the forming of the state  (called Mysore State then) did not materialize till November 1, 1956. Many great men (among them: Alur Venkatarao, Goruru Ramaswamy Iyengar, S. Nijalingappa, and Kengal Hanumantiah) worked relentlessly to coerce, lobby, and win over the fighting factions.

The state was renamed as Karnataka (see about the name) on November 1, 1973.

The new found state inspired great works of literature, poetry, theater, cinema and other arts in the local population. The formation of state of Karnataka is the reason why the 20th century Kannada literature is so rich.

See also:

References

  1. L. K. Srinivasan, “Cultural Heritage of Karnataka”, Dasara Cultural Festivities Souvenir 1983 © Government of Karnataka
  2. Kamath Suryanath U., “Karnatakada Sanksipta Itihasa”, Bapco Publications, Bangalore, 1973
  3. Gangarams, “Karnataka — Impressions” , 1989

________________________________________________________________

History of Karnataka

 The evidence of Maurayan dynasty in Karnataka is the Ashoka’s rock edicts found in the state. The great Chandragupta Maurya ruled the state and adopted Jainism at Shravanabelagola. After him many other dynasties like the Chalukyas, the Hoysalas and the Vijayanagars ruled it. These dynasties added value to the cultural and spiritual value of the state.

 

At Aihole in Karanataka, the Chalukyas constructed the early Hindu temples in India. These temples are regarded as the architectural wonders. Similarly, the Hoysala’s who ruled from the 11th to the 13th century, built more than 150 temples having excellent architecture.

http://www.indiasite.com/karnataka/history.html

November 2, 2006 Posted by | EKAVI COORG-KODAGU, History of Karnataka | 1 Comment

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