HAVERI-District-Tourist Places-THE HISTORY OF TEGGINAMATH-BADA Village-KANAKADASA-KAGINELE-Kaginele Kanaka Guru Peetha-Hallikere-Motebennur
Before it was made a separate district, it was part of Dharwad District. Haveri District is 335 km from Bangalore. Bada village where the greatest of all Saints Kanakadasa was born is situated in the district. Today Mutt dedicated to this great saint is located in Kaginele Village called the Shri Kaginele Kanaka Guru Peetha. The freedom fighter Mailara Mahadevappa, who resisted British rule, is from Motebennur in Haveri District. Another freedom fighter Gudleppa Hallikere a native of Hosaritti is also from this district. He started a residential school Gandhi Grameen Gurukul in Hosaritti. Konanahalli Family has been a model in terms of education, as many from that family have become architects, lawyers, medical doctors and engineers in India and abroad.
Tourist Places of Haveri
Haveri district is exactly in the center of Karnataka with equal distance from Bidar in the far north to Kollegal in the far south. It is also known as the gateway district to the northern districts of Karnataka. Total population is 1,439,116 of which 299022 live in urban and 1140096 in rural area.
Haveri district has a very rich culture and tradition. The district is proud to be the birth place of Santa Shishunala Sharif, great saint Kanakadasaru, Sarvagnya, Hanagal Kumara Shivayogigalu, Wagish Panditaru, Writer Galaganatharu, Ganayogi Panchakshari Gavayigalu, Gnyana Peetha Awardee Dr.V.K.Gokak and many more. The freedom fighter Mailara Mahadevappa, who resisted British rule, is from Motebennur in Haveri District. Another freedom fighter Gudleppa Hallikere a native of Hosaritti is also from this district. He started a residential school Gandhi Grameen Gurukul in Hosaritti.
Haveri district along with Gadag district was earlier part of undivided Dharwad district. Owing to the demands of the people Haveri district was carved out of old Dharwad district and was formed on 24.08.1997.
History of Haveri district dates to pre-historic period. Evidences are available on existence of pre-historic civilizations on the Tungabhadra and Varada river basins. Stone carvings depicting Stone Age civilizations are found in many parts of the district. About 1300 stone writings of different rulers like Chalukyas, Rastrakutas are found in the district. Though none of the major kingdoms of Karnataka had their headquarters in Haveri, many Mandaliks ruled in this district.
Bankapura Challaketaru, Guttavula Guttaru, Kadamba of Hanagal and Nurumbad are some of the well known Samanta Rulers. Devendramunigalu the teacher of Kannada Adikavi Pampa and Ajitasenacharya the teacher of Ranna Chavundaray lived in Bankapura. This was also the second capital of Hoysala Vishnuvardhana. Guttaru ruled during latter part of 12th century and up to end of 13th century from Guttavol (Guttal) village as Mandaliks of Chalukya, independently for some time and as Mandaliks of Sevuns of Devagiri. Shasanas found in Choudapur, a village near Guttal, reveal that Mallideva was Mandalika of 6th Vikramaditya of Chalukyas. Jatacholina, under the leadership of Mallideva built the Mukteshwar temple at Choudapur. Kadambas of Nurumbad during the period of Kalyana Chalukyas ruled about 100 villages with Rattihalli as their capital. Kadambeshwar temple at Rattihalli is a beautiful Chalukya style temple.
All these Samantas who ruled from different parts of the district have left their permanent evidences in the history of the district. Many beautiful temples like Tarakeshwar at Hanagal, Kadambeshwar at Rattihalli, Someshwar at Haralahalli, Nagareshwar at Bankapur, Mukteshwar at Choudapur, Siddheshwar at Haveri, Eeshwar at Galaganath, Jain Basadi at Yalavatti depict the rich culture and history of the district.
THE HISTORY OF TEGGINAMATH The history of Tegginamath is as old as the rule of palayagars of Vijayanagara empire. The historians opine that during the rule of palayagars, the Math and Veerabhadreshwara temple were in exiestence to the right side of Kalamma temple at the present location of ruined fort.
The history of Tegginamath is as old as the rule of palayagars of Vijayanagara empire. The historians opine that during the rule of palayagars, the Math and Veerabhadreshwara temple were in exiestence to the right side of Kalamma temple at the present location of ruined fort. In the later period, the Math was shifted to the place where it is existed now. As Tegginamath was patronized by famous palayagars, it was also know as SAMSTHANAMATH. The palayagars had great reverence to the pontiffs of Tegginamath. They were spiritual guides to palayagars. The original name of Tegginamath is Hiremath. As math is in the pit, it came to be known as Tegginamath. speaking on an occasion. Shri. Jagadguru veeragangadhara swamiji of Rambapuripeetha causally remarked, “math is in the pit, The pit is symbol of depth of knowledge. Shri Tegginamath has a great tradition of being a sakha Math of Shri. Madrambhapuripeetha of Belehonnur, which is one among the panchpeethas of veerashaiva The Math has a legacy of hereditary succession (Puthravarga heredity).
The branchas of Tegginamath are in Nagathibasapur, Koilaragatti, Bhavanipethe and Gouripura. Thera are tomb-monuments of former religious enlightenment. Among those former religious heads, the documentary evidences of Shri. Kashaiah swamy, Shri. Channaveera swamy Shri. Gurubasava swamy and Shri. Chandrashekhara swamy are available. the religious heads of these Maths had a glowing account of their spiritual and social commitment. They had the reputation of patronizing art, culture, music and astrology and maintaining continual Annadasoha (offering )of free food) right from the days of palayagars till today.
Bodhaka – Sadhaka
Swamiji’s illustrious career began with a teaching profession. He gracefully accepted Shri. Sharanabasappa Appa’s offer to work as lecturer in Philosophy in Sharanabasaweshwara College, Gulbarga of Sharana basaweshwara Samsthe in 1964. He was the head of the depertment of Philosophy and then Reader during 1970. He worked to the fullest satisfaction of Shri. Sharanabasappa Appa his co-mate in Philosophy. He recognising his services worthrecording and commendable, respectfully recommended him to Shri. Vageesha Panditharadya of Shrishail peetha to make use of his services in his Vidya Peetha. Shri. Chandramoulishwara gratefully responded to the call of Shri. Vageesha Panditharadya to work as the founder principal of S.J.V.P. College of Harihar during 1970-72. Swamiji entrusted with positions of greater responsibility, worked hard for the allround development of the institution. Thus, he provided a firm footing to the institution of Shrishailpeetha. He was a visionary. While working at Gulbarga and Harihar, his dream of making Harapanahalli a seat of learning was fully taking shape in his mind. As a result, he gave birth to Shri. Tegginamath Arts and Education Society in 1969. Thus he sacrificed his earlier profession to fulfill his life-mission in the field of religion and education. He descended down to Harapanahalli as a messaih of Shri. Chandrashekhara swamy to shape its destiny. As a step towards a big leap in the field of education Swamiji started Teacher’s Training Institute (T.C.H.) in Harapanahalli during 1970-71. The first offspring of Shri. Tegginamath Arts and Education Society at the foot of famous Gosavi hills. The People of Harapanahalli welcomed it as an oasis in the desert. So is the life of Yogi-begins as bodhaka and ends as Sadaka.
A Public Health Care Information System Using GIS and GPS: A Case Study of Shiggaon
|Book Series||Lecture Notes in Geoinformation and Cartography|
|Book||GIS for Health and the Environment|
|Publisher||Springer Berlin Heidelberg|
|ISBN||978-3-540-71317-3 (Print) 978-3-540-71318-0 (Online)|
|Subject Collection||Earth and Environmental Science|
|SpringerLink Date||Thursday, October 04, 2007|
|Lecture Notes in Geoinformation and Cartography|
|GIS for Health and the Environment
Development in the Asia-Pacific Region With 110 Figures
|Poh C. Lai and Ann S. H. Mak|
Ashok Hanjagi3, Priya Srihari4 and A.S. Rayamane5
|(3)||Department of Geography & Geoinformatics, Bangalore University, Bangalore-56, India|
|(4)||Department of Geography & Geoinformatics, Bangalore University, Bangalore-56, India|
|(5)||Department of Geography & Geoinformatics, Bangalore University, Bangalore-56, India|
Health data maps and Geographic Information Systems (GIS) are significant resources for health planning and health services delivery, particularly at the local level. The ability to visualize the spatial distribution of health status determinants and indicators can be a powerful resource for mobilizing community action to improve the health of residents. Currently, health data maps and other GIS applications tend to be highly technical and specialized, and are therefore of limited use to community members and organizations providing community-based health services. Developing relevant, accessible, and usable GIS and health data maps for communities and local agencies is an important step towards enabling individuals and communities to improve their health and increase their control over it. The final map was prepared by overlaying all the layers generated. The spatial objects were digitized out of LISS and PAN merged data and topomap supplied by the NRSA and Survey of India respectively. Questionnaires were prepared to get the data needed from each hospital and house by field investigation. Finally, a map of Public Health Care Information System was created by interlinking all topographical features with attribute data of the town so as to keep this information for planning and development in days to come.
Keyword public health care system – GIS – GPS
SUDHA MURTY was born in 1950 in Shiggon in Haveri district of north Karnataka.
An M Tech in Computer Science, she is currently the Chairperson of Infosys …
Includes temple plans, history and reconstructions,and accounts of its architecture.
The Temple of Mukt®¿vara at Cau·ad¡napura
Temple seen from South east angle, after áivadevavijayam, photo showing inscriptions.
In all, there are eight inscriptions in the compound of Mukte¿vara temple. Except one which is on the k¢rtistaÆbha, all are written on well-polished stelae specially prepared for engraving. An image of V¢rabhadra has been carved on the back of the inscription No. V. The sixth inscription is written on the back of the inscription No. III. Except the one on the k¢rtistaÆbha all are kept in the shade of a shed which was recently built to shelter them. Judging from old photographs, it was not their original place. Originally they were installed near the temples, to the activities of which their contents refer.
All the eight inscriptions are written in Kanna·a characters of 12th and 13th centuries. The letters are well incised and beautifully engraved. Texts are a good combination of prose and poetry. Seven inscriptions are in Kanna·a interlaced with Sanskrit verses, whereas the one on the stone pillar is entirely in Sanskrit. As in most of the inscriptions, the pra¿asti part of the text is in poetry and the details of the grants are in Kanna·a prose
Stella bearing inscription I, k¡lamukha worshipper.
Inscription No. I (incomplete). Construction of a temple by Attir¡ja. Between 1101 and 1120.
(S.I.I. XVIII No. 112)
The stela containing the text of inscription No. 1, now installed in the shed specially built to shelter the inscriptions, is the second from the right and faces the East. Formerly, according to the Dharwar District Gazetteer, this stela was in the shrine of Mukte¿vara. This inscription is also published in áivadeva VijayaÆ as No. VII, p. 33 in Appendix; then in Cau·ad¡napura Monograph as No. 1 and in S.I.I. XVIII, No. 112. There are a few variants in these different publications. S. C. Nandimath had already given a full description of these stelae in his monograph (p. 66-67). We have mainly followed his reading and verified the printed text directly on the stone. S. C. Nandimath gives the description of the stone slab as follows: “It (the stela) measures 7′-6″ in height and 3′-8″ in breadth. The written space covers 5′-6″ by 3′-6″ leaving a margin of 1″ space on both sides. At the top of the slab there is an arc of a circle. In the centre of the arc there is a Li´ga. To the left of the Li´ga is a man, a devotee with beard and matted hair tied to form the shape of a turban. He is in the act of worshipping the Li´ga i. e. offering a garland of rudr¡kÀa on the top of the Li´ga. Above the Li´ga there is a cow and sucking calf. Above them there is the Sun. Just below this whole scene there is a band, 2 1/2″ in breadth, consisting of one and a half line. Round the arc of a circle at the top there is a band of 4 1/2″ breadth”.
There are 63 lines, but the inscription is incomplete. The portion containing the date and the purport of the grant is missing. The inscription is written in Kanna·a characters of 12th century with round and legible letters. “The text is in prose and poetry and the language is Kanna·a interlaced with Sanskrit verses. There are totally 32 verses in various metres such as anuÀ¶ubh, utpala, campaka, mah¡sragdhar¡, matt®bha and kanda. ” (ibidem p. 67)
The composition of the text is as follows. As in most of the epigraphs of this epoch, it begins with the famous ¿l°ka “Namas tu´ga¿ira¿-cumbi” followed by another in praise of God áiva. Then follow the titles of the C¡½ukya king Tribhuvanamalla Vikram¡ditya VI. The description of his realm and the name of G°vindarasa the governor of Banav¡si come next. This is followed by the history of the feudatory chiefs of the Gutta family starting from their origin, namely from the days of the legendary king Vikram¡ditya of Ujjayin¢. From l. 10b to 14 there is a pra¿asti of the legendary king Vikram¡ditya in Sanskritised Kanna·a enumerating his epithets and achievements. M¡gutta was a descendant of this family. His son was Gutta whose son was Mallid®va or Mallugi or Mallabh£pa. From l. 30b to 48a, in a very beautiful poetical style, a long description of the river Tu´gabhadr¡, of a temple of áiva built by one of the descendants of Ja¶¡ C°½a family, relatives of Guttas, are given. In the family of Ja¶¡ C°½a was born JoÆma whose son was D¡sa. From his wife Candabbarasi, D¡sa begot two sons, Attin¤p¡la and Canda. It appears from the inscription that the feudatory chieftain Mallabh£pa of Gutta family was the father-in-law (m¡va) of Attir¡ja, the author of a áiva temple at Cau·ad¡napura. The portion between lines 37b-45a is full of double meanings: e. g. d¡n°cita sth¡na means a place fit for donation and another meaning of d¡na is the rut of the elephant; bhitti is a wall and also the temple of elephants; n¡ga means snake and elephant and according to the Hindu mythological conception snakes are in the P¡t¡½a or subterranean world; rambh¡ stands for the banana tree and also is the name of a celestial nymph who was in the court of Indra; the waves of the sea are called t¡½a which is also the rhythm in music; sumana means the gods whose mind is good and also flowers which beautify the body and make it well-appreciated.
In l. 54b-55a the poet extols the king’s generous qualities and compares him with the cint¡ma¸i (celestial wish granting stone) and the kalpav¤kÀa (heavenly wish granting tree) and says that these are inferior to the king, because the monarch invites meritorious people and honours them with rich grants, whereas the other two satisfy the desires of those who ask. So these two remain barely a tree and a stone when compared to the king.
Though there is no date, Fleet has assigned this inscription to 1115 on the basis of other documents, which evoke the governorship of G°vindarasa in Banav¡si between 1110 and 1120 under Vikram¡ditya VI. But there are other inscriptions, namely from Abl£ru and Ba½½ig¡ve, which record the governorship of G°vindarasa in Banav¡si as early as 1101 A.D. Consequently, the date of construction of this áiva temple by Ja¶¡ Co½a at Cau·ad¡napura can be taken back to a date slightly earlier than 1115 and it may not be wrong to say that the temple might have been built after 1101 but before 1120 A.D.
With regard to orthographical peculiarities Dr. Nandimath’s remarks are valuable. For example:
1. Syllable ri , in mri¸maya (l. 1), prithivi (l. 3) etc., for vowel ¤
2. ¿a for sa in ¿ahasra (l. 2), ¿amadhigata (l. 7).
3. ¿a for Àa in ¿a·akÀari (l..43) for Àa·akÀari.
4. sa for ¿a in sil¡ (l. 2), sikhama¸i, sara¸¡gata (l. 8), sauca (l. 14).
5. ba for va in br¡ta (l. 26).
6. Consonant after r is doubled in t£rttada (l. 30).
1a. Homage to áaÆbhu, lovely with a Cauri, the moon kissing his lofty head, foundation column of the construction of a city, the three worlds.(1)
1b-2. Grass [for building a temple, procures] one crore of years [in heaven], mud ten crores, wood hundred crores, stone thousand crores. (2)
3-5a. The refuge of all the world, master of the earth and fortune, king of great kings, great seigneur, great lord, glory of the family of Saty¡¿raya, ornament to the family of C¡½ukyas, Tribhuvanamalla’s victorious kingdom extending on all sides, to continue as long as the sun, moon and stars,
5b-6a. (kanda) King Vikram¡ditya, ruled over the earth, with the western ocean to the West, the eastern ocean to the East, to the North the snow, and to the South the bridge (s®tu) as boundaries; 3
6b-7a. This king Vikram¡´ka, tilaka of the family of C¡½ukyas after having made the entire stretch of the ocean-bound earth contained in the palm of his own hand, ruled it in glory. (4)
7b-9a. While the fortunate G°vindarasa, dweller at his (King’s) lotus feet, having all five great titles, great chieftain of vassals, great general, an arrow like Indra’s thunderbolt to the mountains which are the enemies, commander of great warriors, protecting jewel to those who seek refuge, great minister, was administering in pleasure the Banav¡si 12000,
9b-10a. killing those who were not submissive, protecting those who prostrated (to him), G°vindarasa displayed his fame in all grandeur in company of K¢rti-LakÀm¢ , while the whole South obeyed his orders.(5)
10b-15a.Hail.To tell the grandeur of Guttas,descendants of Vikram¡ditya :
the foreheads of the people of the earth prostrated extolling highly his lotus-feet; he was destroyer of groups of enemies, blessed by God Mah¡k¡½a of Ujjaini, taking pleasure in all branches of learning, master of P¡¶a½¢pura, Lord of the Lady of Celebrity, having Banyan tree as a banner, in courage like Him (ViÀ¸u) who has an eagle as his banner,
an eye on the forehead of S°ma’s family, having lion as emblem, Bh¢ma of Guttas, firm like R¡ma in battles, with feet touched by the crowns of royal princes, ornament of Guttas, Sun to the darkness which is the army of enemies, club of the god of death to the enemy clan, King Vatsa to horses, in beauty Cupid, wish yielding jewel in protection, jewel among disciplined army, wish granting tree to those who compliment him, protector of the submissive, full (moon) to the family of king of kings Candragupta, Kar¸a in truth, follower of Manu, donor of honours to the deserving, in chastity like Hanum¡n, never withdrawing a promise once made, Disk of Ayya (ViÀ¸u), Indra of the entire circle of the earth.
16. (kanda) There, in the family of Guttas, who were like Lords of LakÀm¢, was born king M¡gutta known as unrivalled and invincible. (6)
16b-17a. To such a king (was born) a son, treasure of valour, crest jewel of the royal family, god of death to adversaries, wish granting stone to the subdued, like Cupid in beauty. (7)
17b-19a. (v¤tta) Glory of the Gutta family: not satisfied with the kingdom inherited from his forefathers, he acquired more territories by slaying heroically the enemies who came to face him; and by granting wishes to one and all who desired, King Gutta attained everlasting celebrity as his own palace. What a fulfilment King Gutta achieved in life! (8)
19b-20a. (kanda) Best in the dynasty of Guttas, sacred finial of the royal palace of Gutta family, crest jewel amongst Gutta descendants; (thus) Gutta appeared like tilaka on the forehead in the line of Guttas. (9)
20b-21a. His son, Mallid®va, Lord of mighty lords, respecter of rules of polity in the world, lion to mighty elephants the enemies, fearless amongst kÀatriyas on the earth. (10)
21b-23a. (v¤tta) What is the use of other kings? Now Mallid®va shines like a moon on the eastern mountain, a lotus in the midst of an ocean,
ruby in a ring, refuge to the inhabitants of the earth, crest jewel amongst kings, (like) Mandh¡ta (son of Yuvan¡¿va) to three worlds. (11)
23b-24a. (kanda) Our brave hero who conquered the entire host of enemy kings by the might of his limbs, bore the goddess of Victory on his arms, who is like M®ru, our king Malla, is he an ordinary king ? (12)
24b-25a. The words of Malla are such that if not uttered, there is no issue; if he says “I will”, they are like boons of áiva, letters engraved on the celebrated mountain M®ru if once uttered (by him). (13)
25b-27a. O king Malla, should I be alone to eulogise your sports in the battlefield (the inscription reads ‘sugr¡ma’ (to be corrected as ‘saÆgr¡ma)’ I could be accused of partiality. However, will not the host of enemies in many a battle speak eloquently about you: in despair the enemies mounted on an ant-hill, bit the grass, you slew those who threw their sword, hid under water, made others flee, others to join hands for protection. (14)
27b-28a. (kanda) Brilliant Mallan¤pa mounted on his horse, tilled the soil of the battle-field with its hooves, to reap a crop of shining, celebrated glory by sowing heads of enemies as seeds. (15)
28b-30a. (v¤tta) The terrific nature of the battlefield was increased very much indeed by the blood of the killed enemy force newly painting the quarters, and by the severed heads of slain soldiers and mutilated body bits of slaughtered horses enveloping the entire sky. (16)
30b. Description of the temple of áiva at Muktit¢rtha built by the descendants of Ja¶¡ C°½a dear dependent of the descendants of Guttas:
31. (kanda) Is there any river or fleuve in the world equal to TuÆgabhadr¡ descending from V®da¿aila and the celestial river (Ga´g¡) residing in áiva’s matted hair ? (17)
32a-33a. The water of holy Tu´gabhadr¡ dripping from the mountain appears as if oozing from moonstones on the slopes of V®da¿aila, embellished with full blown lotuses turned into red by the saffron powder used by damsels during their water sports, deafened all directions with a multitude of high waves. (18)
33b-34a. Equal to river Ga´g¡, (Tu´gabhadr¡ is) southern Ga´g¡; like Ga´g¡ this southern Ga´g¡ too washes off loads of sins of mortals who bathe there. (19)
34b-35a. In sacredness this southern Ga´g¡ (Tu´gabhadr¡) is equal to Ga´g¡. Who is able to eulogise the sanctity of Tu´gabhadr¡? (20)
35b-37a. The flow of Tu´gabhadr¡, is the purifier of all sins, with its clean water (poured by) clouds having come in large quantity near the source of the river on the summit of the V®da¿ai½(l)a which is comparable to M®ru and Him¡cala, lord of mountains.(21)
37b-45a. Like the fluid flowing from Air¡vata’s temples, MuktikÀetra, encircled by walls, is fit for the flow of water libation; like the top of áiva’s matted hair, it shines with a river; like the netherworld with snakes (n¡ga), it is an abode of a mighty race of elephants (n¡ga); like the bed of Sur®ndra with Rambh¡, it is embellished with (rambha) banana groves; like the world of celestial beings with (sumana) gods, it is delightful with (sumana) flowers; like music with rythm (t¡½a), it is delightful with waves (t¡½a);
ike the dvija in Brahmasabh¡ it shines with brahmins (dvija); (and) in such MuktikÀetra blessed in all three times (k¡las) and six (¤tus) seasons, he and she parrots play, intoxicated bees sing sweet songs, echoed with the sweet musical sound “pugal, pugal” of cuckoo; it is delightful with flowers like nam®ru, mand¡ra, p¡(ri)j¡ta, with thick smoke of homa performed by the best of brahmins (who recite) maÆtr¡kÀara in the saptasvaras of S¡mav®da,
with the good brahmins engaged in offering tarpa¸a to gods, to ¤Àis , and to the directions repeating japas of G¡yatri, Sa·akÀari, with yogins engaged in performing difficult yogic exercises (such as) vajr¡sana, padm¡sana, svastik¡sana, and four ways (of mantrocc¡ra) n¡dabh®da, bindubh®da, ¿aktibh®da, ¡tmabh®da; Muktit¢rtha which is like an embodiment of the way to liberation, shines with many shelters for numerous Li´gas. (22)
45b-46. (kanda) Like Brahm¡’s assembly it shelters dvijas, like Indra’s court sumana (gods, flowers);
like the heavenly elephant’s (ichor), here flow water libations (of donations). Is Muktit¢rtha ordinary? (23)
47-48a. (v¤tta) With full-bloomed jasmines, p¡¶a½is, newly come unaccountable ripe new mangoes, the buzzing of bees, the passionate cooing of cuckoo couples, the gentle breeze of south passing through render MuktikÀetra lovely to look at. (24)
48b. The family descent of (Jomma):
49-50a. (kanda) On this earth encircled by oceans, in Ja¶¡ (C°½a’s) family was born Jomma, abode to the goddess of fortune, refuge to the making of grants and good laws, Indra in enjoyment and statecraft. (25)
50b-51a. Amongst the celebrated princes (was) born D¡sa pure in character, an ornament to heroes, like the wish-fulfilling celestial tree to the seekers on the earth; is he an ordinary person? (26)
51b-52a. To the lotus-faced Candabbarasi and D¡sa, abode of good qualities, was born Attin¤pa, bee on Hara’s lotus feet, renowned for taking interest in other’s welfare. (27)
52b-53a. Can there be an equal to his younger brother Canda on earth ? He is like LakÀma¸a, brother of he who has Brahm¡ in his navel (ViÀ¸u), who built the bridge and killed R¡va¸a, like (Bhag¢ratha) who brought the heavenly river to the earth. (28)
53b-55a. His father-in-law is (mah¡ma¸·a½e¿vara) as Lord áiva to Cupid he is to the army of valourous heroes, (m¡¸·a½ika) of three kings, lion to the elephants, the enemies. To tell his glory : (kanda) In inviting and endowing donation with affection to those who deserved it the king cannot be compared to the tree of plenty or the wish-fulfilling stone (cint¡ma¸i), (because) do they call and give ? (29)
55b-57a. Mallabh£pa, an IÀ¶adaiva to param¡rtha, master of the whole world, tilaka in the family of king Vikrama, under the protection of áiva and his consort Girij¡, rules the (kingdom) with compassion. Blessed on the earth, this Attir¡ja, a mountain in the family of Ja¶¡ C°½a. (30)
57b-58a. (kanda) (In MuktikÀetra) equal to V¡ra¸¡si on the bank of the celestial river, with pleasure, Attir¡ja made to be built a temple for Hara, destroyer of loads of sins. (31)
58b-59a. Who will not praise this excessively good king Attir¡ja, the best in the assembly of the best of kings, best amongst people of good conduct, highest in the congregation of the learned poets? (32)
59b-61a. (campaka) There are not many good people on the earth in this iron age, just as there are no white elephants. Indeed he is the foremost among good men, a patron of letters, harvest in the hands of his kinsmen, hand mirror to the gods, a treasure house of virtues; a man of sterling character, he is singular on the earth like the wish-fulfilling tree. (33)
61b-62. Mah¡s¡manta, lord of the goddess V¢ralakÀm¢; wish-granting stone to the ¿iÀ¶as, best amongst the descendants of Ja¶¡ C°½as, of pure g°tra, Candrah¡sa of Guttas, bee on the lotus feet of áiva, jewel in politeness… The inscription is left incomplete here.
Inscription No. II. Donation of land to the temple of Mukte¿vara by K¡meya N¡yaka (relative of Attir¡ja), officer of Vikram¡ditya II Gutta.
(S.I.I. XVIII No. 299. In Elliot’s collection vol. II. No. 17, folio 345 verso – 347 recto)
This inscription is now set up in the special pendal built to shelter all the engraved stelae, which means that it is not in its original place. In the shed it stands second from right and faces east. According to Dharwar District Gazetteer, it was found standing in “Ì¿vara temple on the bank of Tungabhadr¡” (p. 390). This Ì¿vara temple probably is the main temple, i. e. Mukte¿a. Also in the collection of inscriptions by Sir Walter Elliot it is mentioned “in the village of Ca·¡Æpura in the temple of Ishvara near the river”. From a photograph of the inscription taken somewhere in the middle of the last century by Dixon it can be noticed that this stela was planted next to the main temple. Judging from a photograph published in Col. Meadows Taylor’s book, Architecture of Dharwar and Mysore, we may say that it was installed to the South of the main shrine not far from the others (p. 57, photo 39). The text on the stela was facing west. From the above mentioned facts it is clear that the Li´ga which was worshipped by Muktaj¢yar began to be called Mukte¿vara and even today the temple goes by the same name. Otherwise, only in the European documents it was known as Ì¿vara temple.
“On the slab of 7′-5″ x 3′-4″ the inscribed area covers 7′-5″ x 3′-2″ leaving a margin of one inch on either side. The arc at the top measures 2′-4″ in the centre and 3′-2″ at the base” (Cau·ad¡napura Monograph p. 74). The figure of the temple in the centre of the arc resembles in structure that of the main temple of Mukte¿vara. In the centre of the temple a replica of the Li´ga is represented in cylindrical form but on a high p¡¸ip¢¶ha. Whereas in the main temple, the Mukte¿vara Li´ga being an udbhavam£rti is very small and not much elevated from the floor level. The devotee who is engaged in the worship of Li´ga looks like the one in the inscription No. I. Behind the personage is a couchant Nandin and the sun above. To the left of the temple are a cow and a sucking calf. The crescent moon is carved above the cow and calf.
Totally there are eighty-two lines, of which the first five are engraved on a band of 7″ below the arc. Each line contains 30-35 round and legible Kanna·a letters of 12th century. The text of the inscription is strewn with some beautiful decorative motifs viz. ¿a´kha, cakra, etc. The language of the inscription is Kanna·a prose and poetry except the beginning and a few imprecatory verses which are in Sanskrit. The inscription is complete and preserved in a very good condition. There are 34 verses containing kanda and v¤tta as follows: anuÀ¶ubh 1, mah¡¿ragdhara 4, campaka 6, utpala 2, matt®bha 6, ¿¡rd£la 1, kanda 14. Orthographical peculiarities are there but not worth mentioning (Cau·ad¡napura Monograph p. 75).
The inscription begins with an invocation to áiva in Sanskrit and continues in the style of a k¡vya describing oceans, mountains, JaÆbudv¢pa, Bh¡rata, and finally M¡½ava with its capital Ujjayin¢. Further it speaks of the supernatural powers of Vikram¡ditya the ruler of Ujjayin¢. With the descendants of Vikram¡ditya, the history of Guttas of Guttava½al begins. Then it describes the Gutta chieftain, his officer K¡meya N¡yaka and his relationship with Ja¶¡ C°½a family. A grant was made by K¡meya N¡yaka after laving the feet of Muktaj¢yar, the ascetic who was in charge of the religious activities of the temple. The last line of the inscription gives the name of R®v°ja who was the architect and sculptor of the temple.
Also, there is a piece of information, which is very important from the point of view of history. Today, Guttala is a small and insignificant village without any trace of its past glory. But the inscription records that there was a fort and it was a jaladurga or “water-fort”; that means it was encircled by water. Effectively, the river Tu´gabhadr¡ flows not far from there. As Guttala was the principal residence of Gutta chieftains, it is but normal that it had a fort. As the river flows in its vicinity no wonder the fort was encircled by water. According to other inscriptions (S.I.I. XVIII, nos 296, 297) Guttala was lying in the limits of MuktikÀetra.
With regard to the text of the inscription a few words may not be out of place here. The poetry that we read here is of a high rank and the poet uses many ala´k¡ras such as ¿liÀ¶opam¡, utprekÀ¡ and so on. For example in l. 5b to 11a the poet points out the superiority of the earth over all the worlds by using utprekÀ¡. In l. 17b-19a the poet shows his talents in parisaÆkhy¡ by using the same word in two different meanings. With regard to j¡ti the pun is excellent. J¡ti stands for caste as well as jasmine flowers. So j¡tisa´kara was only in the garlands of jasmine with an admixture of various other flowers and not in the sense of mixture of castes in marriages. Similarly, the word karagraha¸a also has double meaning. Kara is tax as well as hand. Karagraha¸a may mean holding the hand in marriage ceremonies as well as levying taxes. Here the poet says that karagraha¸a used to take place only in marriages and no new taxes were levied. Also kaRe means milking animals as cows etc., or black stigma. Black stain is the sign of spreading anti-propaganda, calumnies. In M¡lava kaRe was used for milking animals and there was no place for evil.
In lines 29b-31a king Jomma is compared with Indra, S£rya and ViÀ¸u because he shared with them common epithets. Vinat¡nandana-sa´gataÆ; the king was “endowed with the quality of pleasing those who bow down to him”, ViÀ¸u is Vinat¡ nandana “he who causes pleasure to Vinat¡”, i. e. her son, Garu·a, ViÀ¸u’s vehicle. Sajanit°dyat k¡mavarÀapra-vardhanaharÀaÆ: King’s joy was increasing by fulfilling, literally raining down, the wishes of devotees. Of the three Gods Indra, Divasendra and Upendra, Indra is associated with the rainbow, the Sun with light, ViÀ¸u with K¡ma. In this way the poet extols the qualities of his patron King Jomma through ¿liÀ¶°pame, a means to exhibit his poetic talents.
The date, áaka 1113, Vir°dhikrit, M¡rga¿ira amav¡sya, Budhav¡ra, S£ryagraha¸a, corresponds to A.D. 1191, December 18, Wednesday. And the other date mentioned in line 80, namely Vir°dhikritu saÆ, PuÀya amav¡sye, brihaspativ¡ra corresponds to A.D. 1192, January 16, Thursday.
1-2a. Obeisance to Mukte¿a on whose knotted hair is the moon crescent which shines like a swan swimming in the divine river GaÆg¡. (1)
2b-5a. May Mukte¿vara bless us with zeal and pleasure, place of worship of the world of devotees, whose sacred feet are praised by the Moon and ViÀ¸u, master of the whole world, bestower of sovereignty born of unfettered prosperity, sole root of pleasure to the heart of Gaur¢ ever associated with Him; his very bright fame has reached the heaven in the form of the praise of the good. (2)
5b-8a. On the orders of ViÀadatar®¿vara (áiva) indeed all the fourteen worlds have come into being. Earth is the most pleasing to the mind, created following the rules of áiva-dharma; and to raise the beauty of the world to a higher level the seven splendid oceans were made to encircle them. (3)
8b-9a. Encircled by seven oceans, with seven continents, the earth shines as if it had acquired for itself all the joys of the rest of the fourteen worlds. (4)
9b-11a. Amongst the seven dv¢pas JaÆbudv¢pa is the most beautiful one, and it appeared as if the other six have been assigned to protect it around. Who knows the rules of the Creator? (5)
11b-14a. The beautiful ocean with rows of waves full of foam, of giant fishes and other aquatic reptiles, appeared as if it were the beautiful girdle of Goddess LakÀm¢ of the JaÆbudv¢pa resplendent with the fragrance of D®vad¡ru, sandal wood trees and a number of gems. (6)
14b-15a. In the midst of the ocean(s) JaÆbudv¢pa (is like) a lotus in a pond of clear water, M®ru being the stalk, the directions the petals, whirlpools armies of bees. (7)
15b-17a. Mount M®ru with six islands is encircled: Suragiri, I½¡v¤tta, KiÆpuruÀa, HarivarÀa, Himavadgiri, (and) BharatavarÀa with Him¡laya, and to their south shines M¡½ava. (8)
17b-19a. Spoken words are used only in the sense of “lotus”; j¡tisa´kara is in jasmine garlands only; and karagraha¸a in marriages; kaRe used only in milking the cow. In such M¡½ava r¡jan¢ti shines with multitudinous desires of LakÀm¢ (prosperity). (9)
19b-20a. The merit of ears is to hear about Ujjayin¢, (capital) city of M¡½ava (where) the mansions made of moon-stone exceed in lustre that of the blackness of the eyes of fishes; without rains grow wood-lands. (10)
20b-22a. Vikram¡ditya the best of the kings of that city, having achieved eight great Siddhis, without hesitation bestowing pleasure to his subjects by fulfilling their desires, covering the three worlds with his glory, ruled the beloved Earth with his mighty arm, as if She had a glorious life only in his arms and nowhere else. (11)
22b-24a. Owing to his magical merits Vikram¡ditya’s bundle gives gems, his bowl supplies best food, his sandals take him where he wants, his brush paints what he desires,
his sword slays enemies heads at will, his clothes turn into gold, he becomes invisible by force of magic pills; his merit is unaccountable.(12)
24b-25. While it was said thus about Vikram¡ditya, here, in the family of Candragupta, after defying the belief that no one will be born (equal to him), was born V¢ra Vikram¡ditya. (13)
26-28a. His good character, good conduct, great desires, entertainment, matchless heroism, the expansion of his rich empire made god Cupid to suffocate. The good fame of Vikram¡dityad®va made the world to think that he is unique. (14)
28b-29a. To this valorous king Vikram¡ditya was born JoÆman¤pa, as the lord of lotuses the Sun (rose) in Udayagiri (eastern direction), when the bride Earth opened her eyes. (15)
29b-31a. He treats humbly and courageously in company, accrues the joy through a shower of genuine good wishes, deserves the praise of protector of literates; affection rises through cast-ing a glance on his realm; he excells in beauty He who holds Sudar¿ana cakra (ViÀ¸u); such Jomma shines like Indra, Divas®ndra (Sun) and Up®ndra. (16)
31b-33a. Many kings have no perseverance for literary taste; if endowed with refined taste, they have no sharpness; if endowed with sharpness they have no spirituality; without spirituality they have no good conduct, without good conduct they have no grace, whereas all these good qualities are united in King Jomma lord of the earth. (17)
33b-34a. Gutta, younger brother of JoÆma, with the eulogy of r¡j¡c¡ra was delighted by the reading of j¡pyamantra of shining b¢j¡kÀaramantra of Bh£lakÀm¢ by the priests. (18)
34b-36a King Gutta with his charming body appeared as Cupid having himself entered into his body after having been bodiless; by uniting with his fame the Moon could face the attacking clouds; in his circle they say that Yama lives in his sword for the pleasure of a sumptuous food. (19)
36b-38a. The beloved spouse of King Gutta, Padmalad®vi, lady of Padmin¢ class, of charming grace and wit, dazzling like LakÀm¢, having graceful walk like a royal swan in love with the sun, celebrated with honors by a circle of poets, made (Guttala) into a water-fort of Cupid and pleased her husband with charm and wit. (20)
38b-39a. In V¢ra Vikram¡ditya born in the pure lotus like stomach of Padm¡, like Padmabhava in the lotus stomach of K¤À¸a, (now) will there be any limit for diplomacy. (21)
39-42a. V¢ra Vikrama is possessed of three qualities, humility, heroism and merit, the ornaments of administration to the goddess of the kingdom, strength, humbleness, liking for all ¿¡stras, promotion of dharma were all present abundantly in Vikram¡ditya the great king. (22)
42b-44a. The sharp edge of the sword as his friend, he enters the battlefield, the enemy feels that the king has become an entire army; as the saying goes “as the form, so the conduct”; his will is so firmly set on victory, what is the use of any other joy; the only goal worth seeking by a king is a kingdom which comes as a fruit of valor in war. These qualities adorn king Vikram¡ditya. (23)
44b-46a. Occasionally, even the goddess of victory would long for his beauty which is such that women would crave for; so is his munificence in statecraft and good conduct which people on the road look as perfection; he shines with his greatness manifest in everything (24)
46b-53a. Be it well. V¢ra Vikram¡ditya, mah¡ma¸·a½e¿vara of five great titles, lord of Ujjaini, having va¶akalpav¤kÀa as emblem on his victorious banner, unique right arm in protecting the earth, full moon to the nectar ocean of Candragupta’s family, eternal Indra in magnanimity, cak°ra to the moonlight shooting off from toe-nails of Hara, pea-cock enjoying the sound of clouds, Guru’s words, plunderer of the proud property (husband) of women, brave in battles, Bhairava to vassals, white lotus to the eyes of joyous young damsels, overlord of twelve, fond lover of fighting, Sun in wars, V¢ra Vikram¡ditya governed Banav¡sen¡·u from his residence Guttavo½al, in pleasure and pleasant conversation, in good pursuits, chastising the wicked and protecting the chaste.
53b- 55a Like a bee on the lotus feet of his overlord, with his deep dedication and talents fit to be called appropriate minister to the king, through his own valor he became the true dexterous right arm of the king, the world famous K¡meya, chief amongst the generals of the king. (25)
55b. To tell about his genealogy:
55c-57. Atyarasa, fiery king, mine of truth, shining as the shaft of Dharma, with daily festivities and appropriate actions made to feel as an abode to all (good) qualities; (26)
57b-58a. of his daughter, M¡calad®vi, causing waves of fluid of sweet sap in a lotus pond, her heart, N¡yaka M¡ra obtained the good pleasure of holding the hand. (27)
58b-60. K¡meya N¡yaka was born to M¡raya N¡yaka and M¡cale; he was like a bee on a lotus the noble feet of áa´kara, play of good omens, made women to feel that the lord of Rati (K¡ma) was born. K¡meya N¡yaka, the best of heroes, is there anybody equal to him in good qualities? (28)
61-62a. With Bh¢ma’s puissance, R¡ma’s courage, Hanum¡n’s devotion and affection, the illustrious K¡meya N¡yaka was of brilliant nature. (29)
62b-65a. As king Vikram¡´ka, tilaka of earthly kings, when set to reduce quickly the armies of enemies, he used strongly his shining sword, quickly raised the ranges of elephants in rut, speedily running cavalry, (placed) the strong infantry in the fronts and said to rule “why should you worry”, said K¡ma. (30)
65b-66a. Swollen by the flow of water pouring for grants by the lord of men, the Tu´gabhadr¡ flows in that land as if saying “I am the necklace of the respectable lady Earth”. (31)
66b-67a. The children of the beautiful woman Earth’s twice seven (fourteen) worlds; as a support to them áiva with Um¡ present there began to be called by the name Mukte¿a; (32)
67b-69a. With all pra¿atis, while ár¢manu mah¡ma¸·al®¿vara V¢ra Vikram¡dityad®va, was ruling from his residence Guttava½al in pleasure, discourse and divertissement.
69b-75. KhaÆ·eyak¡Ra K¡meya N¡yaka dwelling at the lotus feet of the King, after conquering the good will of the master, a trophy obtained a field of six mattaru at Honnavatti, the four limits of which are: to the east the field of God C¡m®¿vara, to the south the road to Gope, thus four limits of six mattaru of land being defined, on the date of the solar eclipse of new moon day in the month of M¡rga¿ira, in the cyclic year Vir°dhik¤tu, áaka 1113, for the pleasure of the decoration of the Lord’s body and stage, and for the repairs of what is worn out, …, after bowing down at the feet of Muktaj¢yar, making the field tax free, offered it with water libation (to the God). Salutation to the Lord of the Universe Homage to ár¢ Mukte¿vara.
76-77. By protecting this dharma one obtains the fruit of buying a Kapil¡ cow(s) at the arghyat¢rtha of Pray¡ga, setting up its (their) hooves with gold, giving it to 1002 brahmins versed in Vedas.
77-79a. He, who destroys this dharma, will incur the great sin of killing a brahmin, a Kapil¡ cow in V¡r¡¸as¢. He, who steals the earth given by him or another, is reborn as a worm in dirt for sixty thousand years. (33)
79b-83. On the eclipse and vyat¢p¡ta of the new moon day of the dark fortnight of the month of Pu¿(À)ya in the cyclic year Vir°dhik¤tu…
for the three main food offerings of Lord Mukte¿a ár¢ V¢ra Vikram¡ditya… in the presence of the assembly of Mah¡janas was granted a field measuring 20 kaÆba; the limits are: to the south the temple in ruins of ár¢ Kalid®va in ár¢madagrah¡ra Honnavatti, to east of the same God. In this manner (the clauses of) this chart should be executed without any derogation.
83b. Including the stone pendal the execution of external work (was) by R®v°ja.
Salutations to Mukte¿a.
Inscription No. III.
Eulogy of áivadeva. 1262
Cau·ad¡napura Monograph No. IV; South Indian Inscriptions vol. XVIII, No. 244. In Sir Walter Elliot’s collection: no. 52, folios 240 verso to 242. In The Inscriptions of Dharwar and Mysore photographed by Pigou and Biggs, edited by T.C. Hope No. XXXVII)
Chronologically this inscription comes third.”The stela is kept along with the others in the same pendal in the south-western part of the temple complex. It is 7′ 10″ high and 3′ broad. The carved space occupies 5′ 4″ from top to bottom, 2′ 10″ from left to right leaving a one-inch margin on both sides and an unwritten space of 8″ at the bottom. The letters are pretty good and belong to the 13th century Kanna·a script. The whole is in fairly good condition except the damaged last few lines” (Cau·ad¡napura Monograph p. 94). Vi½¡sa is the term employed by Walter Elliot’s copyists to designate the top of the stela in semicircular shape. Like in other inscriptions, here too a shrine has been represented with a Li´ga in the centre. To the right of the Li´ga is the figure of a devotee in seated posture unlike in the two previous inscriptions, other details being same except for a kind of crooked sword carved above the cow and calf. Two lines are written in the space left as margin round the semicircle and the name of the engraver on the pedestal of NaÆdin: D®va¸a of Guttavo½al who recited and wrote the text of the inscription. The language is mainly Kanna·a, interlaced with Sanskrit and Pr¡krit ¿l°kas. The text begins with “namas tu´ga…”. There are 26 verses: Nos. 1, 2 and 22 are in Sanskrit and anuÀ¶ubh metre, 23 is in Pr¡krit and the rest in Kanna·a. Of these three are in mah¡sragdhar¡, four in matt®bhavikr¢·ita, five in ¿¡rd£lavikr¢·ita and eleven in campaka metre.” (Cau·ad¡napura Monograph p. 95)
After invocatory verses on áiva and Mukte¿vara, the inscription proceeds with the description of Kail¡sa and the glorification of bhakti. P¡rvat¢ the consort of áiva requests Her Lord to impart bhakti to the world. áiva looks at Nandin and the latter answers that, as Basava the spiritual son of SaÆgam®¿a did, similarly he would accomplish the mission in the name of áivadeva. First he goes to worship Dhava½ali´ga at ár¢¿ailam where he meets áivamuddud®va and then he proceeds to MuktikÀetra. This part of the text is not very clear. In the following inscription the same matter is recounted in a different fashion. At MuktikÀetra he becomes a great saint, imposing on himself many restrictions such as not to lie down on a bed, not to embrace women, not to beg anything from anybody etc. In l. 29 one of his vows is mentioned in very concise style: sv¡mi mah¡d®vanitto·allada n®maÆ, i. e. he will not accept anything except given by Lord áiva. A ¿ivaka¶¶e was built by him at MuktikÀetra to stop the river Tu´gabhadr¡ from advancing up to the Li´ga. What it is and where it is, is not specifically indicated. Dr. M. M. Kalburgi and Dr. Katti suggest that it may be identified as an embankment of the river. The architectural plan of the temple strengthens this opinion. On the northern side of the shrine there is no door whereas there is one to the east and another to the south. This blindness is due to the embankment built checking the rising up of the river water. He also built a shrine to Rudra, most probably V¢rabhadra. Moreover, the main temple to áiva was repaired by him and was entirely decorated with stone panels. The inscription mentions that he wrote Kai½¡sa-caritra, which unfortunately is not available to us today.
There is a piece of interesting information in l. 15. Here we come across with two important names. Not only Basava the son of SaÆgam®¿a is mentioned but also his companion and faithful follower Ba´kaya. The exact name of the latter occurs in the literature as Ba´kan¡tha. He was from Iµcal in Torgal, which is the same as Toragale in the inscriptions. Ba´kan¡tha while fighting with the army of Bijja½a during the troubled days of Kaly¡¸a finally reached Iµcal where he built a temple which goes by the name of Ba´kan¡thana Gu·i even today. He was a staunch defender of the principles of Basav®¿vara. Here in this inscription there is an allusion to Ba´kan¡tha and áivadeva says that he will defend the principles of áaivism of Basava like Ba´kan¡tha.
The Temple of Mukt®¿vara
The site is on the left bank of the Tu´gabhadr¡, on the convex and elevated bank of a meander of the river, which flows from east to west at this particular point. The westward direction of the river has a strong poetical, or even religious resonance in the minds of the people, as it is a feature repeatedly emphasized in the inscriptions. The religious site covers the highest ground, looking down towards the river and the flat cultivated plain on the opposite bank. The steep slope of the bank has been built into a flight of steps on a length of 40 metres approximately. The ancient built site must have been larger than the area delimited by the modern compound. The modern village is at a distance of about 500 metres from the temple site. Villagers recently excavated the ground to the south-west of the compound and found a few ancient sculptured slabs which were re-used by them when erecting a small shrine dedicated to the Goddess Honnamma.
|The main ancient elements are:
1) on the northern side, the temple of Mukte¿vara (No. 1), the largest and most beautiful monument on the site; to the east, in its east-west axis a later ma¸·apa;
2) on the eastern elevation of the ground three smaller shrines (2-4);
3) on the southern elevation four shrines in one row (6-9);
4) to the south a lofty monolithic stone mast (5);
5) six inscribed stelae recently installed in a modern shed (10; their original place visible on old photographs is indicated in No. 11).
The diagram of the site refers to the present state. When compared to Cousens plan, it shows a few modifications: the disappearance of the ground structure facing shrine 2 and the displacement of the inscribed stela.
1. Mukte¿vara a. garbhag¤ha
2. Kallid®va b. ¿ukan¡s¢
3. Li´ga c. ¤a´gama¸·apa
4. Li´ga d. mukhabhad¤a
5. K¢rtistambha e. later ma¸·apa
10. Inscribed stelae (new location in a modern shed; roman numbers refer to Epigraphy section)
11. Inscribed stelae (old location from Cousens plan)
Northern facade, áikhara.
The undated photograph reproduced in áivadevavijayam, published in 1949 shows well the original location of the stelae bearing the inscriptions and the elements which have disappeared in front of shrine 2. The stela bearing the image of V¢rabhadra seen on top has been installed in the recent shed with the inscribed stelae.
To the south of the later ma¸·apa of the main monument there is a temple with one cella and an antechamber open to the west. On its axis Cousens plan shows a square platform which looks like the base of a ra´gama¸·apa, and traces of the foundations of a structure which we are not able to identify. This is a possible location for a porch which could have been erected in front of the ra´gama¸·apa. An old photograph which may be contemporaneous with Cousens plan shows in this very place a large stela bearing an image of V¢rabhadra in high relief. It can be identified as the stela which bears the ins-cription No. V on its other side. From the contents of the inscription we infer that this monument is the temple where KaÆn¡d®vi had a Li´ga installed, called Kallin¡tha after the name of her defunct husband, Kallid®varasa, in 1262. Nowadays the stela has been displaced; its original place has been levelled and the traces of the old foundations have disappeared; the traces of the ra´gama¸·apa platform seen on Cousens plan have also disappeared in a modern platform. On the west side of the surviving building we see clear indications of the existence of an attached structure, i. e. pilasters and corbels the presence of which imply the existence of the architraves of the lost structure. The original name, Kallin¡tha, of the Li´ga, is also forgotten. It was al-ready so in the time of Walter Elliot who recorded the name “temple of Gomuni” still in use among the villagers.
This shrine has kept its doorjambs and lintels. The outer walls of the cella have a double axial projection, but no other decoration. There is a tower above the cella and a projection, called ¿ukan¡s¢, coming above the antechamber. The tower is made of seven low strata of gradually diminishing size, with a small dome. The ¿ukan¡s¢ has six strata. Each strata has indentations in a regular spacing. We interpret this feature as a schematic representation of an eave with its attic windows and with turned up points at the angles. The small dome of square plan rests upon a flat moulding with a padma moulding between two recesses. It has a double axial projection on each face. Its graceful curve turns up at the base with upward points at the angles. The crowning motif is a padma moulding of square plan supporting a double circular base for a bulb shaped moulding and a pointed flower bud. The ¿ukan¡s¢ is covered with a flat roof. Its West side is closed with a gable-end motif.
To the south of this structure, a shrine consisting of only one cella open to the west, the outward wall of which has no projection, nor any decoration, is what remains of a small temple. There is no visible trace of any other structure attached to it. There is no superstructure. On an old photograph a post is seen in front of that shrine. It is a short post in stone, approximately 1.5 M high, with a lotus bud at the top, and on one side two mortices, at the bottom and towards the top.
To the south-east, there is a third structure consisting of only one cella of slightly larger size, open to the east. Only the inward facing of the wall remains. The outward facing, as well as the door frame, had already disappeared when Cousens drew his plan.
The southern group comprises four shrines. Cousens plan shows two parallel temples, with cella and antechamber, open to the north-west. At the level of their antechamber they are connected by one single rectangular cella, open to the same direction. To the west extremity of the row there is one more single cella of equal size. Only the inward facings of the walls remain. The three first shrines have preserved their doorframe. The whole has been modified by recent renovations.
Monolithic Mast, K¢rtistamba, bearing Inscription VII
| The monolithic mast has a double base. From bottom to top its section is successively square, octogonal, sixteen edged. It is topped by a large square abacus. One sees three small pillarets on the abacus; this is what remains of the ancient superstructure. The mast bears a Sanskrit inscription (No. VII) recording its foundation and where it is called k¢rtistambha “pillar of fame”.
|The main monument is a structure comprising one cella (garbhag¤ha), one antechamber (¿ukan¡s¢) and a closed hypostyle hall (ra´gama¸·apa), all placed on the same east-west axis. All of them are open to the east. The ra´gama¸·apa has a second opening to the south, and a porch for each opening.
To the east one more ma¸·apa with four central pillars, of slightly larger size, has been added in later times. It has, in fact, no structural connection with the main monument. It is slightly out of its axis, even though its central low platform with four pillars is in the east-west axis. It is closed on its south and north sides. Only the internal facings of these walls remain.
The Temple of Mukt®¿vara, elevation of the northern facade.
The main structure is a remarkably well-built monument. It is clearly the product of one well-thought architectural project. Though an inscription mentions a renovation made in the 13th century, in the construction, as we see it now, we do not observe any recast of an initial project, nor any later modification or important repair. The renovation may have been such an important reconstruction, that no earlier parts, nor any trace of an older stage have been left visible.
The main monument shelters a Li´ga called Mukte¿vara “Lord of the Released (Souls)”. The inscriptions which contain a number of references to the Li´ga called Mukte¿vara and express the feelings and thoughts of the worshippers, in the form of refined literary eulogies of the god, reveal a noteworthy evolution in their attitude and conceptions. The two first inscriptions describe mostly the mythological aspect of áiva. The following ones keep the same theme and introduce new concepts. In inscription III the foundation of a temple is told to be the bringing of Kail¡sa on the earth (l. 33):
“áivadeva having brought the Kail¡sa, said to be beyond imagination, with the army of all gods, to the earth, had a pleasant abode built to áiva, to produce áiva’s pleasure.”
Similarly the temple of áiva is declared to be a M®ru, MuktikÀetra being a Kail¡sa (III l. 23-24).
The inscription III introduces a new religious figure, áivadeva. With him comes a new concept of the deity, which includes the mythological representation, but does not give to it the same emphasis. The emphasis is put on devotion. A larger place is given to the view of the worshipper áivadeva is told to be an incarnation of Nandin or Amara-Ga¸a i. e. a courtier of áiva in Kail¡sa. He performed worship mostly in the form of heroic vows described in Inscription III. In fact he belongs to the class of saints and yogins practicing meditation and pursuing mystic experiences. He is turned more towards the unmanifested aspects of God. His attachment to the manifested aspect appears in his vow not to move out of MuktikÀetra. May be that was due to his belief in the sanctity of this place. His belief in the sacredness of ár¢¿ailam in Ëndhra, where he resided before his coming to MuktikÀetra in 1225, is also recorded (III l. 15b-16a). The attachment to the Li´gas of these two particular temples seems to be the main link maintained by him with the manifested.
The attitude of the worshipper who directs his mental representation towards a concrete object, who places the unmanifest on the manifest is directly expressed (III l. 16b-17a):
“áivamuddud®va who says: “I shall show to this world that the invisible áiva is manifested here in Dhava½ali´ga” believes in it firmly.”
Later the emphasis is placed more on the practice of meditation, than on ritual practices. It goes upto the point to declare that the mental representation creates the concrete form. In inscription No. V stanza 7 which describes the sage áivadeva meditating on the áivali´gatattva and causing it to take form:
“This áivadeva who caused the very rich essence áivali´ga to take form by meditating intensely over it.”
The essence called áivali´ga is in V¢ra¿aiva doctrine the supreme entity, not accessible to the senses. The qualification ghanatara is often given to the supreme principle to indicate the plenitude of its essence (compare with the epithet cidghana “full of consciousness”. áivadeva practices meditation over the supreme. The intensity of his meditation gives a concrete form to the abstract entity. By the force of meditation the yogin gets a direct perception. Thus the non-manifest and the manifest are linked by the religious practice.
The identification of the concrete Li´ga with the abstract concept of God is also remarkably illustrated in inscription VIII l. 9-10:
“The god Mukte¿vara who is the Li´ga-soul of the siddha áivadeva.”
From the date of 1265 onwards áivadeva is called a siddha, i. e. one who has acquired supernatural powers by y°ga, who has attained liberation in the form of union with the supreme áiva. In V¢ra¿aiva vocabulary he has become the principle of áiva Li´ga. His soul or livening power called pr¡´a is a Li´ga, one with the supreme. The demise of the saint took place in MuktikÀetra. This is his sam¡dhi or fusion with Li´ga. From that time the soul of the saint equated with God is placed on the Li´ga in the temple. The soul of the saint fused with God is the unmanifest placed in the manifest by the event of the demise and liberation of the saint. In inscription VII l. 10-11 the name of the saint is transferred to the Li´ga:
“In the presence of the god Mukte¿vara who has the name ár¢ Siddha áivadeva.”
One more fact about the Li´ga Mukte¿vara deserves to be recorded. Today the villagers declare that the deity of their temple is Mukte¿vara in the form of an udbhava li´ga. This is the common designation in Kanna·a of a Li´ga which is believed to have come out spontaneously, by itself, in a particular place. The installation is not ascribed to men, but to the god himself, who is considered as having come to the earth in a particular place by his own will. In Sanskrit this type of temple image is called svayaÆbh£ – li´ga. N¢laka¸tha áiv¡c¡rya defines it in his Kriy¡s¡ra:
“Satisfied with the penance of gods and sages, in order to make himself present, áambhu who is inside the earth as a seed in the form of n¡da, like an immobile germ, breaks the ground and becomes manifest. Because he is bh£ta i. e. born from himself, he is known as svayambh£ “self-born”. By the worship of this li´ga, knowledge grows by itself.
“The denomination of svayambh£ or udbhava does not occur in the inscriptions, nor is it told in any of them that the Li´ga was installed by any historical figure. References are to the construction of temples, not to the creation of a Li´ga. However two passages give clear indications that the belief in the spontaneous presence of áiva in MuktikÀetra was current in the times of áivadeva. In inscription IV a myth of the descent of áiva in MuktikÀetra is narrated with the words (l. 16b-18a):
“Staying there I shall purify all in the three worlds” saying thus the beloved of mountain’s daughter appeared as Mukt¢¿a and aroused love in the Lord of the Earth. “Li´ga has already appeared on the Earth” (See also Inscription V l. 9b-11a).
Therefore nothing goes against the local oral tradition which we record nowadays. And we may consider that Mukte¿vara has been regarded as being a svayambh£-li´ga in the past also.
It also has the low shape characteristic of this type of Li´gas.
East West section looking South, Vim¡na.
The vim¡na is the architectural volume dedicated to the Li´ga Mukte¿vara. The abstract entity, áiva, is represented by the Li´ga, which is here of small size and on a very short base, as in many other temples of the same region and time. The Li´ga is at the centre of a cella of square plan (2.20 x 2.20 M). This cella is almost cubic, the height is 2.45 M under the ceiling, 2.20 M under the architraves. It is called garbhag¤ha as it is the innermost part of the monument. It has only one opening, a door on the eastern side. The walls of considerable thickness (1.50 M at the plinth level in the east-west axis) are made of a filling, which we could not observe, between two facings of long stone slabs. Those of the inward facing have the full size of the wall on each side of the cella. In each angle there is a pilaster. On the west and north walls there is a cyma for the purpose of keeping cult instruments. The architraves have a chamfered edge. The ceiling is made of two series of triangular slabs placed in the angles and leaving a square space in the centre. That square space is covered by a slab decorated with three circles of lotus petals and a flower bud.
The cella is topped by a tower of pyramidal shape with two steps and a small dome. We had no possibility of observing the interior of it.
The outward facings of the walls bear the superimposed secondary structures, which will be described later. In the recesses between them parts of what may be considered as belonging to the main structure, are seen. The elements which it is made of are the same as those of the secondary shrines, so that there is agreement and continuity of both structures. For the cella they are a double base, a wall with pilasters, an eave; for each step of the tower there is a wall with pilasters and an eave. The dome of square plan rests upon a base and a recess. Its outward shape is that of lotus petals curved downwards and with turned up points at the base. It has three axial projections on each side. The last is the architectural motif of a square gable-end of a roof; it is now a flat stone; it may have been the support for a sculptured stela. There is one more crowning motif: three rows of lotus petals and a lotus bud on a double base.
The whole, cella and tower, bears the name of vim¡na or pr¡s¡da. These two terms are used for the dwellings of gods or kings, or more technically refer to buildings having a superstructure. The word vim¡na is sometimes used in reference to the superstructure alone (Mayamata) (VIII 195) and this use which seems to be rare in ancient times, seems to become more current in modern times.
Thus the facings of the walls are of a totally different nature. The inward facing is made of seemingly thin stone slabs placed on edges and devoid of decoration; it is a pure stone architecture. The outward facing is made of thicker stone slabs bearing a sculptured representation of wooden architectural models. The ground level is the same for the cella and the courtyard outside, so that the two facings have the same height.
We have not been able to observe the foundations. Their last layer, the top of which is apparent at the level of the paving of the courtyard, is made of long stone slabs. That may be understood as the component called up¡nah in áilpa¿¡stra. It is the basic layer, the strength and horizontality of which ensures the tightness of the construction. The plinth is a few centimetres in recess. Following the most common prescriptions of áilpa¿¡stra the base is to be considered as made of two parts, lower and upper, called upap¢¶ha and adhiÀ¶h¡na. The former comprises three major protruding mouldings: a flat plinth (jagat¢ or p¡duka) repeated in slight recess and topped by a lotiform moulding (padma), a chamfered band (kumuda), a terminal moulding (Kapota) in the shape of an eave, i. e. a sloping roof with jutting out attic windows cal-led n¡sik¡ or n¢·a. In between these three mouldings there are two deep recesses (ka¸¶ha). A finer square moulding, which may be called Kampa, together with small padmas provide graceful transitions between them. There are deep hollow joints at the base and between the plinths. This series of mouldings forms a unit, as shown by the up¡nah which is a lower element and by the kapota which is an upper and terminal element. That is why it bears the distinctive name: upap¢¶ha. It is the proper base of the building.
All the three major mouldings bear a refined decoration sculptured in very low relief: a creeper motif on the first plinth, a frieze of haÆsa on the second one, a geometrical jewellery motif on the outward edge of the kumuda, a series of n¡sik¡, symmetrically disposed, with the lion-head motif on the kapota.
The upper part of the base, or adhiÀ¶h¡na, is a base for the pillars of the wall. Therefore it may be considered more properly as a part of the wall itself. It consists of two protruding mouldings separated by low recesses. The first moulding above the kapota of the upap¢¶ha is an original feature, which is proper to this type of temple in Karn¡¶aka; it is the representation of a series of extremities of beams with connecting bands. Their number and disposition depend upon the representations of secondary structures and will be described later with them. The last moulding is a square band supported by a large inverted padma. It may be called prati which in áilpa¿¡stra is a common designation of the uppermost moulding of the adhiÀ¶h¡na. It supports directly the pilasters and is not cut by any of the niches.
This adhiÀ¶h¡na can be understood as the direct support of the pillars in a wooden construction. The crossed and radiating beams, the extremities of which are seen in the lower moulding, could be the representation of a tight wooden base for a superstructure. This feature can be seen in modern wooden temple cars. The second band or prati can be a representation of a connecting beam passing through the pillars. Because it is continuous, it ensures the fixation of the pillars and the tightness of the building.
South facade, Central niche.
The wall (p¡da) shows a series of small pilasters (ku·yastambha) carved in the body of the massive stones. This is a representation of thin wooden pillars of a hypostyle pavilion, the space between the pillars being filled with some material. The other structures carved between the pilasters are secondary structures, which will be described below. The represented pillar consists of a base, a shaft of square section and an upper part made of three elements, a bulb slightly protruding, a chamfered band and a large abacus, with thin transition mouldings. The middle element and the upper one are much larger than the shaft. They are the most conspicuous elements and may be the kala¿a and ma¸·i or (phalaka) of áilpa¿¡stra.
Between the abacus of the pilaster and the first architrave there seems to be an intermediary system of corbels. We call corbel the protruding element (potik¡ or bodhik¡) which supports an architrave (uttara) and which is the usual intermediary between a pillar and any superstructure in Indian wooden or stone architecture. The corbel does not rest directly on the abacus. In the space between them appears a square element, which has the breadth of the body of the pillar. That may be a representation of the square tenon engaged in the abacus and the corbel, visible in the space between them, and which is of square section to prevent the abacus and corbel to turn. In áilpa¿¡stra it is called v¢raka¸¶ha or (v¢raka¸·a) and is given as the terminal part of the pillar below the potik¡. In the angles of the monument, where orthogonal architraves are crossed, there is a system of crossed orthogonal corbels.
The entablature is the representation of two superposed architraves (uttara). Where there is a representation of an angle, orthogonal architraves are crossed and their crossed extremities are shown. These extremities appear above the corbels, so that we see a series of three corbelling elements above the pilasters. Such a superposition of corbels and architraves is a feature of wooden architecture, which can be still observed in recently built houses in North Karn¡¶aka.
The pair of architraves bears a long, non-curved eave. The angles have a turned up point. Occasionally there are attic windows called n¡sik¡. The eave is topped by one more protruding moulding, which is a kapota after a small recess. It has the shape of a shorter eave with n¡sik¡. This is not a duplication of the previous eave. The role of the kapota is to mark the termination of an architectural element. Here it indicates the termination of the first level of the building. It has also a functional role. The very long eave rests on the architraves in cantilever position and a strong counterweight must be placed above in order to prevent it to topple down.
Architraves, eave and kapota are given in áilpa¿¡stra as one unit called prastara.
The prastara described so far supports, not one superstructure, but a frieze of figured superstructures of reduced sizes.
Each one comprises an adhiÀ¶h¡na similar to that of the wall, i. e. the moulding made of beam extremities and the upper band (prati), then, after a small recess, a dome-shaped roof (¿ikhara). Because of the division and composition of the side into multiple representations of secondary structures, the frieze is made of several types of ¿ikhara. Those placed in the angles are of square plan and called kar¸ak£¶a. Those in the axis are of oblong plan and called madhyakoÀ¶ha or (bhadra¿¡l¡). Those in the intermediary left spaces are square, are still more reduced in size and called paµjara.
With this frieze of ¿ikhara we can consider that the first level (tala) of the monument is completed. It tops not only the first level of the vim¡na, but also the rangama¸·apa and porches, going around the whole monument, in the same way the base and wall do. The vim¡na portion is topped by two more levels, the structure of which is quite similar to the first one. These two upper levels are of diminishing size and less elaborate than the first one. Because of their reduced sizes they look like attics. But we can recognise in their structure the wall (the adhiÀ¶h¡na of which is hidden in the terrace of the lower level behind the frieze of (¿ikhara) with pilasters, the prastara (without the longer eave), the superstructure with its adhiÀ¶h¡na and frieze of ¿ikhara.
We had no possibility to observe the interior of the tower. However, from the observation of the external construction, one can determine the different layers of stone. It is probable that the walls of the tower are made of corbelling stone slabs. We do not know whether there are internal reinforcing built walls, as found in other monuments of the same period and style (Ra¶¶iha½½i, etc.). The height of the two upper talas taken together leaves an inner hollow volume approximately equal to the volume of the garbhag¼ha of the first level. But there is no trace outside that any access to it had ever been provided.
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